Anna Loseva



Anna Loseva earned her MA in TEFL from Moscow City Pedagogical University in 2008. In Russia, Anna taught English in various contexts to different age groups and language levels before moving to Japan in 2015. She is currently employed by Rikkyo University, where she delivers English discussion classes to students of all majors. Since 2011, Anna has been involved with International Teacher Development Institute as an Associate, Blogger, and Editor of iTDi Blog. Her professional interests include extensive reading, developing cultural awareness, social media in education, mentoring and reflective practice for professional development.

Interviewed by: Hami Suzuki

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Dr. Jorge Diego Sánchez


Interview by Cristina Sánchez-Martín

Hi Jorge, thank you for participating in this interview and sharing your experiences with us. To begin with, could you please tell us about your background?

Hi, Cristina. Thanks for getting in touch with me. I graduated in English Studies, and I have a PhD in Postcolonial Studies (Indian diaspora cinema and literature). Nevertheless, teaching English as a Foreign Language (EFL) as well as English for Specific Purposes (ESP) is a passion I have been developing since an early age.  I enjoyed an Erasmus experience (European programme for foreign study) in Dublin (Ireland) in my third year, and I was a Teaching Assistant (hence TA) for courses in Spanish at the same university I was studying at. I really enjoyed the experience and so I decided to repeat the experience as a TA and went to London to teach at a private high school.

Then I started as PhD candidate, and some of the undergraduate courses in general English language required teaching. I had been doing EFL tuition since I was 14 years old to friends and other children/students, but this experience at college enhanced the possibilities as students in college were more enthusiastic. I realised the benefits of changing approaches, motivating students, and fostering a motivating approach to oral skills. I continued teaching these courses after completing my PhD at two other universities in Madrid (Spain). These were ESP courses for students doing degrees in International Relations, Medicine, Engineering and municipality’s officers.  I must confess, it was a challenge in the beginning because I had to develop new material and, at a turning point, I became aware of the fact that that I had to change the whole scope and make the students the ones creating their own material. I became a facilitator of specific real contexts and materials (I organised meetings with ambassadors, patients and showrooms) so that students could see the feasibility of real experiences where English and a high degree of motivation was expected. Lack of motivation was in fact the burden I could find in every group (no matter which age or background).

I came back to teach at University of Salamanca two years ago, and I have been teaching English courses (both EFL and ESP) trying to implement those strategies. High number of students in class (for instance, last year groups gathered 220, 127 and 91 students) havebeen the problem I have found in this new experience. Nevertheless, throughout the implementation of collaborative projects in teaching innovation, these classes have been a delight to participate in! Some colleagues wonder how I feel splitting my academic life between postcolonial studies and EFL/ESP teaching, and I must confess that it is a great balance to handle!

You have recently been granted a project on teaching innovation, could you please tell our readers about the project?

Yes, this year I applied for a project for the EFL course I teach for first year undergraduate in the Degree of History. It is called “Promotion and Transversality of English Language in the Degree of History: Interdisciplinary Proposal around the Concepts of Resilience and Precarity” and it departs from the necessities and areas that I thought could be implemented after teaching a similar course the previous year. The course is a B1 standard (Common European Framework), and it gathers a high number of students (this year 91) with different levels in oral, writing, listening, communication and ethical and cultural attitudes.

The project departs from a similar experience that was developed last year in a ESP course for the fourth year Medicine degree students in two groups of, respectively, 227 and 48 students. A group of experts in different sections of medicine collaborated with a set of experts in linguistic to design a real context (International Conference for Young Practicioners of Medicine) so that the whole course was developed and assessed as part of this Conference. Writing of abstracts, presentation and discussion of work in progress, and writing of a scientific paper and academic presentation of this research project were the activities of assessment. The project aimed at strengthening oral skills in real context for these students. The experience introduced new trends of the field, such as Medical Geology and Rheumatology, as an attempt to implement new areas to motivate students. Oncology and Dermatology were the other two areas out which students were expected to pick a topic. Rubric for assessments were designed and produced for every activity by both groups of experts to guarantee that the medical context and competences were integrated in the linguistic requirements of the course.

This year’s project agglutinates a group of experts in History, Cultural Studies, Journalism and ESP to organise the contents of the course around the topics of Resilience and Precarity. The reason to choose these two topics was that they were very contemporary and could be used as critical terms to look at the present/past/future of History.

For that project, you gathered a significant number of non-native English teachers from different disciplines. What led you to that idea? What steps did you take to implement the idea into an actual teaching and research project?

Yes, in the project there are members from Australia, Canada, India, Spain and the UK. The non-native teaching lecturers do teach EFL and ESP courses as well as modules in literature, history, gender and cultural studies. There are also 6 members graduated in History who are teaching at state schools which offer the subjects of history in English. There are also journalists with a high knowledge of English that they have had to use in real situations, such as how to describe a historical event for a catalogue in English, how to interview a historian and the sort of situations. The problems we non-native teachers face are ideally shared with the students, or at least are taken into account to prepare the material of the lessons.

In terms of research, what are the benefits and drawbacks (if any) of working collaboratively with scholars and teachers across languages, disciplines, and institutions?

I am very lucky to have gathered a group of professionals who believe that any research of innovation in teaching project is devoted for students and society, not for the members or the main researcher. Nowadays, I have noticed that some projects are excuses for groups or individuals to cultivate themselves instead of offering and sharing something. Members of the group agreed to come on board when the idea was merely sketched and agreed to help as much as they could with ease and gratitude. I am a huge fan of team-work, so the main benefit of structuring the course according to the advices and recommendations of the members truly adds to the course.

I am particularly keen on the collaboration between non-native and native speakers from different regions because it is particularly enriching for everyone. I wish I could devote more time and attention to this interaction in upcoming years. Also, a lot of knowledge from different perspectives is shared on relevant contemporary issues and lots of interaction take place in meetings, emails and the sort of communication. From a personal perspective, I count on an interdisciplinary group which is able to provide answers about any topic as well as is eager to devote time to outlines, discussions and perspectives. I know that some members of the group have started to think about resilience and precarity since the project was awarded and they are working about the topics with their students (both at high school, undergraduate and post-doctorate level).

The experts have been given suggestions for those topics (they shared their own choices from their own fields), have assessed the adequacy of the choices and the development of students’ work, worked on the production of rubrics, etc. Besides, there have been two activities organised by the project that have aimed at disseminating the English language in real contexts making students talk English outside their classrooms (their comfort zones): a Film seminar showing films in English showing specific moments in history presented by experts of the topic. English is given visibility for the students of History, and these students meet undergraduates of Philologý as they have enrolled the seminar. It is a five-part seminar and 74 students joined. Also, the project has collaborated with the International Conference entitled “Women, Visual Arts, Literature and Human Rights” which was organised by the International Seminar of Contemporary History on Human Rights at University of University of Salamanca to commemorate the International Day of Women (March 8-9th, 2018). Some of its members, as international respected academics do participate in the project and so we organised two parallel activities. The former is a film in the previous seminar and the latter the meeting with an artist that is exhibiting at the painting show that the Conference commissioned. Students will have to create a leaflet, review or podcast script of the exhibition (as training for their final assessment) and they will interview the artist.

The drawbacks of working with such a big international team (25) is that sometimes emailing takes a bit of time, but that is a minor drawback in this year’s team because all of them are very committed and involved in the project. Also, lack of funding is a burden that we inventively try to bridge with creative alternatives, such as online meetings and Skype calls. Nevertheless, some funding to invite a writer to interact with the students or to bring a person from overseas to teach an interactive seminar could enlarge the outcomes of the project. Also, I tried to arrange a collaborative work with a national museum. A real visit was not possible because of lack of money and so a virtual tour was done… but the students missed the opportunity to interact with the people in charge of the educational programmes to which they were outlining activities in English. The same problem in the access to facilities for transportation is involved in the impossibility of students to visit the High Schools (with associated teachers within the project) to present their activities and interact in real life with classes that they might be teaching in a few years’ time.

What are the expectations for the project in terms of research?

Intellectual outputs involve Rubrics that have been designed taking into account the interdisciplinary nature of the project as well as the design of activities for EFL teaching using original material. A proposal to explain the benefits of teaching EFL through films in a conference for teaching innovation has been accepted. Results in relation to the understanding and analysis of reality and history through the concepts of resilience and precarity are expected together with a corpus-based review of the date collected in the writing tasks. I personally hope that the project gets further dissemination in the specific areas of research and work so that people can enjoy the work of students as well as the suggestions of the group!

What projects are you currently involved in related to the teaching of English?

The research project, as previously stated, aimed at organising the contents of the courses according to the topics of resilience and precarity. According to different writers (Susan O’Brien, Tabish Khair, Judith Butler, Marianne Hirsch…) these two terms allow to evaluate the functioning of cultures, politics and socio-economical contemporary issues. The course if a B1 EFL and we have made a selection of moments in history, characters, books, films, paintings, performances… that refer to historical moments. They are used to practice the contents of the specific level and for the final presentation where students need to present one of these topics orally in a formal context besides producing a writing submission in one of the following templates: a leaflet for a museum, a script for a podcast and a review for a newspaper. There are rubrics that have been produced taken into account the feedback received from all experts to ask for real contexts where English language will be demanded.

Finally, what advice would you give to other teachers and scholars interested in carrying out projects with colleagues from different parts of the world and whose disciplinary and institutional backgrounds are not exactly the same as yours?

Just enjoy the group, the course and the management of as well as the specificities of some intellectual outputs! And organise the project for the students because, ultimately, you teach for students, not for your own merits!

Thank you Jorge and congratulations on such an interesting project!

Thank you Cristina for this interview and for being such an active member of the team!

Prof. Li-Shih Huang

Dr. Li-Shih

An Interview with Prof. Li-Shih Huang, University of Victoria, British Columbia

Interviewer: Madhukar K C


  1. Thank you very much for joining us on the NNEST-of-the-month blog. Could you briefly tell us about your background and how you got interested in learning language and becoming an educator, especially a teacher of English?

Thank you for the kind invitation and the opportunity, and above all, for what you and the NNEST-IS members do in your advocacy work for NNEST in our profession. Since I am someone who tends to shy away from talking about myself, I will instead focus on the serendipitous occurrences in my life that led me to where I am today. Before specializing in second language education, I had worked in the advertising industry and subsequently for a prestigious group in the hospitality sector for seven years. During that time, I was also teaching EFL at private schools any time I got a chance. While moving through the organization’s ranks, working long hours on all the major holidays because of the nature of the business, an opportunity arose for me to take on teaching English for Specific Purposes at a hospitality university, which I took. Discovering that teaching, and not the success of climbing the corporate ladder or securing major sponsors for hosting over a hundred events a year, was what really spoke to my heart, I decided then to return to Canada to pursue a master’s degree in education, enrolling initially in the comparative education program. But then one evening while waiting for my class to begin, I decided to sit in on a class in second language learning taught by Birgit Harley, and that evening changed the trajectory of my life. The next day I switched to another program, and, as the saying goes, the rest is history.


  1. What are your main areas of interest for research, publishing, and presentation at conferences? How do you think your academic publishing and your presentations at conferences contribute to the literature of NNEST issues, World Englishes, ELF, and EIL?

My interests in research and scholarly dissemination extend quite broadly, including areas such as EAP needs and outcomes assessment, corpus-aided teaching and learning, learner strategies in language learning and language testing, and reflective learning. Gratefully I’ve had support from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC), the Educational Testing Service (ETS), and the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) for my work in these areas. In publishing and presentations, I try to devote my attention to both scholarly and professional audiences, perhaps the latter more, as I expressed in this op-ed, which I authored a few years back. This choice is also evident in the nearly five dozen articles or posts I have published for teaching purposes. I’m not certain how much I have contributed to the areas you specify, but an area I have devoted regular attention to is raising the awareness of learners and instructors about ways to support NNES learners and teachers. Over the past decade, these efforts have included 291 presentations and workshops I have delivered across 25 units, both within and beyond my institution.


  1. Could you share with us your memories of some of the opportunities and challenges you encountered as a consequence of your NNES identity while working as a language-teaching professional in Canada?

I am fortunate because I have been afforded opportunities to continue to develop my skills and expertise, and I rarely, if ever, have felt that my differences impeded me from pursuing what I do. Although it’s been pointed out that pronunciation may be the linguistic feature that faces the most judgment as it is the most noticeable, such that one’s accent can easily evoke bias in others, people’s perceptions about who we are do not define us. Rather, our accents and linguistic backgrounds are part of who we are, as I have often shared with my students since the late 1990s, when the “native-like” pronunciation model and accent “elimination” reigned supreme. I intentionally, and critically, use pedagogical tasks in my own teaching to question previously held assumptions, to honor my students’ voices, and to shift how learners view themselves as they come to see that differences are not deficiencies to be eliminated but rather can enrich our voices and facilitate our development. To me, perhaps the biggest challenge lies not in teaching the what-and-how of communication, but in expanding the ability to suspend judgment and to question our own assumptions and interpretations, since these assumptions, which are often deeply rooted in our upbringing and experiences, are critical to transforming our perspectives. Challenges surely abound in what we do every day, challenges that may relate directly or indirectly to our NNES identity and, by extension, to our qualifications to meet our students’ learning needs. Challenges, however, often come with meaningful and rewarding moments that let us know that what we do matters, that we are making a difference in the lives of language learners. My position has indeed enabled me to see the challenges of learners from the viewpoints both of someone who has been trained to tackle those challenges, and someone who has gone through those challenges herself. These perspectives have in turn uniquely benefited me in designing and implementing various research and service programs in my areas of specialization.


  1. You were awarded the Mary Finocchiaro Award for Excellence in the Development of Pedagogical Materials by TESOL International owing to your expertise and creativity in designing pedagogical materials. You were also the recipient of the 2014 Humanities Teaching Excellence Award and the 2017 TESOL Award for an Outstanding Paper on NNEST Issues. Could you highlight the main thrust of your research paper on NNEST issues to our valued readers from TESOL community and beyond?

In my research under one of my current SSHRC grants, I am working to contribute to refugee resettlement efforts by developing culturally sensitive language training, which is critical to integrating refugee learners into the Canadian workforce and society. Faced with limited funding and resources, Canada is having to address enormous challenges related to language training as it seeks to resettle an unprecedented influx of Syrian refugees. As headlines have reported, over 36 cities across Canada are encountering critical problems related to language training for refugees. My work, which draws on approaches to teaching language that are backed by the most up-to-date theories and research, aims to identify the language-learning needs of the Syrian refugees and integrate them into a language-training program that builds on their own rich linguistic and cultural backgrounds. The project incorporates several sources of data to capture their specific needs, including needs assessment surveys, interviews with learners and teachers, and learner corpora. This work will also help practitioners working with refugee learners, and will be extended to any instructor interested in developing lessons or units that are grounded in theory and empirically substantiated, and that draw on learners’ own languages to scaffold English-language learning based on task performance. The final phase of this work will involve empirically substantiating the instructional materials and approach.


  1. You are currently an Associate Professor of Applied Linguistics and the Learning and Teaching Scholar-in-Residence. What courses do you teach for graduate programs at UVic? As an NNES teacher educator, what opportunities and challenges have you experienced working at your university so far?

I teach mainly core courses that survey key areas in the broader field of applied linguistics and research methods. A great deal of my time in the graduate program is devoted to mentoring the students’ research projects required for their doctoral candidacy papers or theses/dissertations. These have involved a wide range of topics, including testing and assessment, learner strategies, refugee resettlement, EAP needs, instructional approaches and methods for French as a second language, language-teaching methods in language revitalization, Japanese pedagogical material development, second language writing, game-based learning, and vocabulary learning in Russian. For me personally, one of my biggest ongoing challenges, as for many of us in our line of work, revolves around work-life balance. I am often asked whether or not I sleep! Maintaining a high level of engagement and time commitment to do the job well and meet personal and professional expectations is time consuming. Being an NNES instructor and imposing high standards of work on myself often doubles the amount of time I need to complete my work. There are also the issues posed by the growing evidence for inherent gender and race-related biases, whether explicit or implicit, in student evaluations. So being acknowledged by awards for pedagogical material design, teaching, and research and being placed in the category of “a very small, very exceptional coterie of professors who earn top ratings from students” has been truly uplifting and heartening. As an NNES teacher educator, I see a great many opportunities working with the next generation of teachers and teacher educators. This past term, for example, among three articles published by ELT journals in 2017 that I offered as options for my students to choose one to explore (following my approach detailed in my article), the group selected the article about equity and enrichment in the TESOL practicum. The wonderful discussion that ensued inspired in all of us a great deal of hope and optimism about the progress of the profession in the hands of these future teachers, NES and NNES alike, with whom I have had the privilege to work. Raising awareness is a first step to creating ripple effects that can transform our own individual and collective practices, and thereby change the state of our professional community.


  1. What advice would you give to your NNES students at UVic and TESOL professionals who wish to succeed as EFL instructors and researchers in Canadian schools/colleges/universities? What advice would you provide to graduate students (Master’s and Ph.D.) trying to publish their research works in peer-reviewed journals?

I’m not sure I have the best advice to offer those wishing to succeed as instructors and researchers in Canada because this work has been a life-long quest of my own. In my work of training future ELT professionals, my deep commitment to connecting theory, research, and practice is known to any student who has taken my courses. These courses are carefully built around facilitating various tasks and activities that require students to experiment throughout the term, so they can learn experientially how to apply the theories and discussions they have read in research articles written for practitioners. Specifically, they make the application through their own experimentations in a recursive and cyclical process involving feedback, reflection, and revisions, as they build their professional practical knowledge and repertoires. Never stop experimenting with your approaches and methods, and never stop challenging your own assumptions, are not only words of advice for my students, but are also what I practice personally. For practicing teachers, I would go a step further to encourage them to share their discoveries with other instructors, whether informally or through presentations and publications, as I have also sought to do over the years. For instance, I have written many posts for various trade publications that are the fruit of such experimentations.

It’s fair to say that in order to connect theory, research, and practice in this way, I believe that practitioners must stay abreast of the literature and research on pedagogy so they can make informed decisions. I am a firm believer that no one can tell you unequivocally what will work best for you in your own teaching contexts, or that there is a one-size-fits-all solution to your teaching challenges. And certainly, no study in the sea of literature can tell your particular story or directly answer your own teaching-related questions. It is only through experimenting and testing our own hypotheses—whether informally through trial and error, or formally if your institution supports such professional development through action research or SoTL (scholarship of teaching and learning)—that we can continue to reflect on our experiences and improve our practices. Seek out peers or colleagues who share similar interests and would be interested in collaborating on research directly relevant to your own teaching. Then mobilize or translate that knowledge so that those who share similar challenges can benefit from your insights. For early career teachers, my advice would be to seek out opportunities to hone your skills and develop your expertise. Speaking from my personal experience, the countless hours I have put into developing a lesson, course, series, or program, whether remunerated or not, cannot be replaced by any amount of training, classroom learning, or textbook reading.

For graduate students trying to publish their work, there is no shortage of advice offered by those who have dedicated their lives and work to helping other emerging (and established) scholars publish (e.g., @write4research, @ThomsonPat, and @explorstyle). This is a complex area that deserves more than a brief response, but if I had to choose one piece of advice from which I would have benefited during my early career (and as I look at the manuscripts I never returned to!), I would encourage these students to look at “revise and resubmit” in a positive light. (This is one reason I encourage graduate students in all my courses to revise and resubmit their work as many times as they like.) Take heed of the astute advice offered by Robert MacIntosh and the wise words of Robert Graves: “There is no such thing as good writing. Only good rewriting.” Writers have different approaches to writing, and there are no right or wrong answers; find out what works optimally for you—when, where, how, with whom, and why. Learn to deal with (even harsh) rejections because they come with the territory, and write your own story of perseverance.


  1. We often come across discriminatory job advertisements on social media, websites of various ELT/TEFL/TESL industry (i.e., universities, colleges, private language and training schools) that tend to perpetuate the ideology of native speakerism. Could you shed light on Canadian EFL/ELT academic contexts with regard to hiring policies and practices? How do you think ELT/TESOL educators should address this prevalent issue of bias and discrimination to bring social justice and professional equity?

This is a really challenging, sensitive, and emotionally charged question for many, and one that is difficult for me to respond thoughtfully and succinctly. I cannot speak to the Canadian ELT context with regard to hiring policies and practices because I do not have the expertise, nor have I immersed myself in the literature enough to form an objective viewpoint. However, I do think it fair to say that it is not uncommon to come across or experience discriminatory practices. My most recent encounters have been related to, in one case, serving on a search committee where I experienced overt biases that for me shattered the façade of the hiring process. Another case relates to a hiring post listing “no Asian face” and “native speaker only” as among the qualifications shared by an admirable, outspoken twitter user. The eye-opening experience was the number of responses arguing that there was nothing wrong with making “native speakers only” one of the eligibility criteria, which underscores the challenges ahead of us. Having said that, I also recognize that in recent years, because the ideology of native speakerism has risen to the surface, our collective consciousness of its ramifications has also increased considerably, thanks to scholars and practitioners whose work has prompted reflection and a call for change. Various professional bodies have also taken a strong stance on equity issues related to our profession. My own awareness of these issues, though not necessarily related to hiring, has also greatly increased because of recent life occurrences heightened by the current geopolitical climate. I’ve learned that statements about diversity, inclusion, and equity are not enough, nor are they sufficient in combating implicit or structural bias and discrimination. In the post-secondary context, it is, however, encouraging to see the work by Frances Henry and other race-focused and social justice scholars who have joined forces to push us to think and examine more deeply the ways that race and racism play out on Canadian campuses over issues related to equity in pay and hiring, the lack of visibility of racialized faculty, and racial discrimination. These have been treated using empirical evidence in their work titled “The Equity Myth: Racialization and Indigeneity at Canadian Universities” (2017).

Certainly, we still have a long road ahead to affect changes at the micro- and macro-levels, but I also believe in my heart of hearts that, first and foremost, one does not have to engage in discriminatory practices in order to be an impediment to equity in our profession. Silence will do it. Silence is never neutral. As Nelson Flores has encouraged us: “Disrupt the notion of right/white ELT qualifications by sharing experiences of racist nativism in order to prompt reflection” (2017). Above all, I hope that we will all consider lending support to our less privileged colleagues. It’s one thing to proclaim to care about equity and diversity, but another thing entirely to put such a proclamation into action. To borrow the words of Deb DeHass, “It is everyone’s responsibility, every day and at every level, to create the culture that can make [inclusion] happen.” It starts with me, with you, and with the voices of many other people.


Work cited in order of appearance:

Huang, L.-S. (2012, October 2). There’s a disconnect between “scholarly value” and how we reach audiences who need research. LSE Impact Blog. The London School of Economics and Political Science. Retrieved from

Flaherty C. (2016, January 11). Bias against female instructors. Inside Higher Education. Retrieved from

Huang, L.-S. (2015, September 25). Getting the horses to drink: Three ways to promote student ownership of reading assignment. Faculty Focus. Retrieved from

MacIntosh, R. (2018, February 1). Career advice: How to handle ‘revise and resubmit’ requests. Times Higher Education. Retrieved from

Henry, F., Dua, E., James, C. E., Kobayashi, A., Li, P., Ramos, H., & Smith, M. S. (2017). The equity myth: Racialization and indigeneity at Canadian universities. Vancouver, BC: UBC Press.

Flores, N. (2017, September 20). Not having the right/white qualifications for English language teaching. Retrieved from

Wittenberg-Cox, A. (2017, August 3). Deloitte’s radical attempt to reframe diversity. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved from

Nicola Galloway


Dr. Galloway

Dr. Nicola Galloway works as a Lecturer in Education (TESOL) at the University of Edinburgh, where she teaches a course on Global Englishes language Teaching. She has written two books on the topic and is currently finalising her recent monograph, Rose, H and Galloway, N ( 2018). Global Englishes Language Teaching. Cambridge University Press.

Interviewer: Ju Seong (John) Lee

1. Thank you for joining us on NNEST-of-the-month blog. Could you briefly tell us about your personal and professional background?

I began my teaching career as an Assistant Language Teacher (ALT) on the JET (Japan Exchange Teaching) Programme in Japan, where I worked for two years as a ‘native’ English-speaking teacher. After gaining my MSc in TESOL in Scotland, I returned to Japan to work at a university. After six years, I moved to one of Japan’s first English Medium Instruction (EMI) universities, where I was responsible for EAP curriculum design and evaluation. During this time, I completed a PhD at The University of Southampton in the field of Global Englishes. I then joined The University of Edinburgh in 2012 to take on the role of a Lecturer in Education (TESOL). I am also the course co-ordinator for a course on Second Language Teaching Curriculum and Global Englishes for Language Teaching (GELT).

2. Your research interests include English learners’ attitudes towards English and ELT, Global Englishes (GE) curriculum design and materials development. How did you become interested in these areas?

My research interests in the pedagogical implications of Global Englishes stem from my experience on the JET programme. I initially completed a joint MA degree in Geography/Politics, not in Education. Despite having a future goal of becoming a teacher (a primary school teacher at that time), I had no experience of teaching English and did not have any teaching qualifications. During my time in Japan, I soon felt very inferior to my non-native speaking counterparts, as they had a much superior knowledge of the English language, teaching experience and knowledge of the students’ mother tongue and educational context, and I could not speak one word of Japanese at that time! I began to question my role in Japan – why I was being asked to change my Scottish accent and write in American English, why I was generally being used as a tape recorder – “Stand up Nicola. Read from…. Students, repeat after Nicola” and why all of these Japanese students were imitating a Scottish girl trying to speak with an American accent. I also started to wonder why my students were learning English in this small mountain village, who their future interlocutors would be and why there was this focus on America. Basically, I was questioning why I was there and whether I was of any real use to the students.

I returned to Scotland to further my education and to embark on a career in TESOL. My MSc dissertation focused on the employment of ‘native’ English speaking teachers in Japan (Assistant Language Teachers in Japan: Imperialism or Empowerment?). My interest in this area increased further when I returned to Japan to work in a university setting, where I taught content-based courses and EAP courses in English. I began asking myself more questions, such as: How do my students use English outside of the classroom?  To what extent is the native English-speaking model, which is being taught by a native English speaker, meeting their needs? What are their attitudes towards English and their teachers? What is their understanding of the role of English as a global language? Is there a more appropriate way to prepare them to use English as a global language? As I researched the topic, it became evident that the lack of an extensive body of research at the classroom level was problematic.  Theoretical developments were outpacing research and I felt that practitioners may need, and benefit from, more practical suggestions. This encouraged me to embark on a PhD at The University of Southampton with Professor Jennifer Jenkins. I examined students’ attitudes towards English and ELT in an Expanding Circle context from a fresh perspective. My study looked at their attitudes towards English and learning the language, what factors influence these attitudes and how a course in Global Englishes could influence these attitudes. In a sense, it was an action research project and I initially hoped that my doctoral research would not only contribute to theory, but also help inform my own teaching practice. However, after submitting my thesis, I returned home to Scotland and took up a post at The University of Edinburgh. I introduced a course there on Global Englishes Language Teaching and have recently become interested in incorporating Global Englishes into teacher education as part of a bigger aim towards instigating a paradigm shift in the field of TESOL away from native English speaking norms.

 3. You have consistently encouraged English teachers to consider incorporating GE into ELT. What are the most rewarding and challenging aspects of implementing GE?

The rise of English as a global language has changed the foundations of how the language is taught and learned. The pedagogical implications of this have led many scholars to call for a paradigm shift in the field of TESOL. This shift is necessary to ensure the TESOL classroom is reflective of the new sociolinguistic landscape of the 21st century. Several concrete proposals for change have also been put forward, and these have been grouped together into a Global Englishes Language Teaching (GELT) framework (Galloway, 2011; Galloway & Rose, 2015). GELT is not a prescriptive model for ELT. It aims to emphasise the diversity of global teaching practices and the diversity of students’ needs around the globe. It is a student-centered framework for curricula that aims to enable TESOL practitioners to critically evaluate their curricula in relation to Global Englishes. It emphasizes the need to raise awareness of the issues associated with the spread of English and to prepare learners to use English in various global and local communities of practice. By promoting a more global ownership of English it is hoped that GELT will help emancipate non-native speakers from native speaker norms.

However, instigating a paradigm shift is a challenging task. Despite the growing debate on the need for a critical examination of ELT/TESOL in relation to the globalization of English, the industry continues to focus on native English norms. Teacher training manuals and ELT materials continue to focus on static representations of English and constrained representations of future use of the language with native speakers in inner circle cultures. This is unfortunate, given that ELF is now the most common use of the language today. The movement towards GELT requires a conceptual transition, in terms of both how the language itself is viewed and how it is taught. Many ‘barriers’ have been identified (Galloway and Rose, 2015) and it is important to acknowledge the various environmental constraints to implementing change that may exist in different contexts. Testing is one of these barriers and there continues to be a mismatch between the English used by test-takers and the English they are assessed on. Measuring test-takers on their intercultural strategic competence and their ability to use ELF in international situations may also be daunting for TESOL practitioners who are used to testing students on ‘errors’ or deviations from the ‘standard’ norm. A further ‘barrier’ relates to the attachment to the idea of a ‘standard’ English and such a deeply ingrained ideology is difficult to challenge. Many TESOL practitioners, and students, cling to ‘standard’ norms and have fixed ideas about how English should be taught.

 4. You are currently involved in a research project with our previous guest, Dr. Heath Rose. How do you think GE can be incorporated in teacher education?

Heath and I are currently finishing our monograph with Cambridge University Press, Rose and Galloway (2018) Global Englishes for Language Teaching, that will be published later in the year. It aims to build on the growing literature on the pedagogical implications of Global Englishes research, which includes a number of edited books devoted to the topic of ELT (e.g., Alsagoff, 2012; Matsuda, 2012) and articles in language teaching journals (e.g., Jenkins, 2012)(Jennifer Jenkins, Cogo, & Dewey, 2011). It also aims to widen the debate on the need for change in ELT practice in light of such research, by offering a detailed examination of what GELT, or incorporating a Global Englishes perspective into the ELT classroom, would look like.

In order to achieve the paradigm shift towards GELT, it is crucial not to alienate experienced teachers by telling them that their current teaching practices are irrelevant and outdated. It is also important that calls for change are grounded in classroom-based research, and not on moral or theoretical arguments. In order to bridge a theory practice divide, we call for more research carried out by practitioners in our book, and we also report on three empirical studies, one of which involves pre- and in-service TESOL practitioners undertaking a GELT course on an MSc TESOL programme. It is important that GELT teacher education raises pre- and in-service practitioners’ awareness of the fact that there is an alternative way of thinking about English and that the most common use of the language today is as a lingua franca. In TESOL books aimed at practitioner researchers and teacher trainees, language is still characterized by norms of ‘standard’ varieties, rather than the diversity and plurality of ELF interaction. They also need the opportunity to examine the pedagogical implications of the global spread of English, and opportunity to revisit fundamental TESOL theories and concepts in light of Global Englishes research. However, it is important not to tell teachers what to do, or to suggest that the pedagogical practices familiar to them, and those on the programme as a whole, are wrong.

By advocating the inclusion of GELT in TESOL practitioner education courses, we are not suggesting abolishing current content. Rather, we want to encourage a critical examination of key concepts and theories through a Global Englishes lens, particularly for those working in contexts where students are likely to use ELF. We also want to encourage them to see themselves not as passive receivers of an education, but as important agents of change in the curriculum innovation process, hence our call for more action research in our upcoming book.

5. What are the advantages of learning GE for EFL students? If any, do you think there are any drawbacks?

GELT is a student-centered framework for curricula that aims to enable TESOL practitioners to critically evaluate their curricula in relation to Global Englishes. Based on the proposals for change in the literature, this perspective of ELT emphasizes the need to raise awareness of the issues associated with the spread of English and to prepare learners to use English in various global and local communities of practice. It is early days for GELT, yet the growing body of studies examining the impact of GELT on learners’ attitudes show that learners have positive attitudes. There is also a growing body of studies reporting positive responses to incorporating a GELT perspective into TESOL practitioner education programmes. Practitioners and curriculum planners will always want to know why an innovation is better than what they have at present, and this growing body of research on GELT is helpful to communicate the benefits of GELT.

Global Englishes research highlights a mismatch between what is currently taught in the ‘traditional’ ELT curricula and how the language is used as a lingua franca. It showcases, for example, that ‘errors’ and ‘mistakes’, often highlighted in mainstream ELT materials and assessments, do not necessarily result in a communication breakdown. Such research provides insights for curricula planning. We do recognize that not all ELF users have the same needs and ‘native’ English norms may still be appropriate for some learners. Indeed, GELT is based on the context-sensitive nature of such communication, and aims to increase learners’ choice, recognizing the diverse needs of learners today. Whilst students’ desire to learn native English should not, of course, be dismissed, it is important for researchers, and practitioners, to explore these attitudes, and students’ needs, in more depth. An effective GELT curriculum should not only be based on an understanding of learners’ goals and motivation for learning the language, but also on their needs.

6. GE studies and resources for teachers seem to be in great demand but quite limited in volume. Could you recommend materials and resources for those who are interested in implementing GE-oriented pedagogical ideas at the instructional level?

 Some recent publications lesson plans and activities. There is also an increasing number of GE texts that include practical suggestions and ideas (e. g., Alsagoff, McKay, Hu & Renandya, 2012; Bayyurt & Akcan, 2015; Cogo & Bowles, 2015; Galloway, 2017; Galloway & Rose, 2015; Matsuda, 2012). Useful resources can also be found on the following website:

7. How do you think GE will develop in the language learning context in the future?

In order to achieve macro-level change in ELT, it is important to recognize that the implementation of ELT curriculum innovation is complex in itself and even more so with regards to GELT. The process has to be planned properly and planners have to take into account various factors, which may influence successful implementation. Careful consideration of the various factors (outlined in Rose and Galloway, 2018) will enhance the potential for successful and sustained long-term innovation. It is also crucial not to alienate experienced teachers by telling them that their current teaching practices are irrelevant and outdated. Giving adequate consideration to these factors and also to the context within which practitioners are working will help reduce the possibility of them being resistant to change. GELT aims for a bottom-up approach to curricular innovation that values both teacher and learner agency in the curriculum innovation process. However, I do not wish to be idealistic and do recognize that this will need time and support. It is also important that calls for change are grounded in classroom-based research, and not on theoretical arguments. We need more research carried out by practitioners.

8. Could you tell us about your current and future research plans?

Currently, I am finalizing the chapters for the new book. I am also writing several papers reporting on GELT in relation to teacher education and am planning further work examining the attitudes of key stakeholders in the field with the overall aim of contributing to GELT curriculum innovation. My aim is to address the scarcity of research that offers practitioners concrete suggestions on how to implement change.

I am also conducting work within the context of the internationalization of Higher Education. My British Council funded project focused on the growing global phenomenon of EMI at the higher education level. I am particularly interested in how the expanding international student body, and the use of English as an academic lingua franca, is shaping higher education.

I am also currently working with a computer software company as part of a Knowledge Transfer Partnership (KTP) to contribute to an online educational platform for young learners in China. The project finishes soon, but we hope to continue with the work.


Alsagoff, L., McKay, S. L., Hu, G., & Renandya, W. A. (2012). Principles and practices of teaching English as an international language. (L. Alsagoff, S. L. McKay, G. Hu, & W. A. Renandya, Eds.). Bristol: Routledge.

Bayyurt, Y., & Akcan, S. (2015). Current Perspectives on Pedagogy for English as a Lingua Franca. (Y. Bayyurt & S. Akcan, Eds.). Berlin, München, Boston: DE GRUYTER.

Cogo, A., & Bowles, H. (2015). International Perspectives on English as a Lingua Franca: Pedagogical Insights.

Galloway, N. (2011). An investigation of Japanese students` attitudes towards English. PhD Thesis submitted to The University of Southampton.

Galloway, N. (2017). Global Englishes and change in English language teaching: Attitudes and impact. Global Englishes and Change in English Language Teaching: Attitudes and Impact.

Galloway, N., & Rose, H. (2015). Introducing Global Englishes. Routledge.

Jenkins, J. (2012). English as a Lingua Franca from the classroom to the classroom. ELT Journal. Retrieved from

Jenkins, J., Cogo, A., & Dewey, M. (2011). Review of developments in research into English as a lingua franca. Language Teaching, 44(3), 281–315.

Matsuda, A. (2012). Principles and Practices of Teaching English as an International Language (New Perspectives on Language and Education). (A. Matsuda, Ed.). Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

Rose, H and Galloway, N. (2018). Global Englishes language Teaching. Cambridge University Press.