Flora Debora Floris


Brief-bio Flora Debora Floris is a lecturer at Petra Christian University, Surabaya, Indonesia where she teaches general/business English and language teaching methodology courses. She has published and given talks on the integration of technology in English language teaching, teachers’ professional development and the teaching of English as an International language. Her recent published papers include Unlocking the potential of SAMR with Willy A. Renandya (English Teaching Professional, 2019), A conversation about supporting teacher research with Willy A. Renandya (ETAS Journal, 2018), and Mining Online L2 Learning Resources: From SLA Principles to Innovative Task Design with Willy A. Renandya and Bao Dat (Multilingual Matters, 2018).

Interview by Ju Seong Lee

1.Thank you for joining us on NNEST-of-the-month blog. Could you briefly tell us about your personal and professional background?

First of all, I would like to say thank you for giving me this valuable opportunity. It is a great honor to share my experiences with the readers of the NNEST of the Month Blog, one of my favorite columns to read.

In terms of academic background, I got my bachelor’s degree in English education from Widya Mandala Catholic University in Surabaya, Indonesia and my master’s degree (MA in ELT) from Assumption University in Bangkok, Thailand. The master program I enrolled in shaped my awareness of critical issues in ELT especially on the issues of teaching EIL. The director of the program Prof. Alan Maley and my lecturers came from different countries and spoke different first languages. Despite their background differences, all of them had graduated from reputable universities and had a lot of professional experience in ELT in various parts of the world. Their deep knowledge and hands-on experiences in teaching, doing research and publication have obviously influenced their classroom practices and inspired their MA students.

Professionally speaking, I have been working at the English Department of Petra Christian University in Surabaya, Indonesia since 2000. I teach a wide range of courses mostly on general English, business English, and language teaching methodology courses.

I also serve as a reviewer and editorial board member for some local and international journals including TEFLIN Journal, RELC Journal, and TESL-EJ. I also assist Dr. Willy A. Renandya, a senior language teacher educator of the National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore to maintain Teacher Voices (http://www.facebook.com/groups/teachervoices/) which is an online Facebook forum for language teachers, textbook writers, curriculum specialists, and researchers in English language teaching or applied linguistics. The forum was established in 2011 and it now has more than 10,000 members from 40 countries.

2. One of your teaching/research interests includes pedagogical implications of English as an international language (EIL). How did you become interested in this topic?

I became interested in the issues of teaching EIL during my MA study when I took a World Englishes course under the guidance of Dr. Mario Saraceni (currently Reader in English Language and Linguistics in the School of Languages and Area Studiesat the University of Portsmouth, UK). The course really opened my eyes and mind to the world that lies outside of American and British English. The issues of Englishes, Braj Kachru’s circles, native and non-native teachers, English as a medium of instruction, and many others were things that I never thought about at that time. The World Englishes course was a revelation; and I grew my interest on the teaching of English as an international language from this course. On the second year of my MA study, I started my publication journey. My first published article was on the issue of using English as a medium of instruction at Indonesian universities (see Floris, 2002).

3. Can you share a couple of activities of how ELT practitioners can integrate EIL-informed pedagogy into the classroom?

I would recommend readers to refer to the following sources as they present some suggested activities for teaching EIL.

  • Floris, F.D. (2014). Introducing English as an International Language (EIL) to Pre-Service Teachers in a World English Course. PASAA Journal, 47 (January – June 2014), 215 – 231.
  • Matsuda, A. (2017) Preparing Teachers to Teach English as an International Language. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

Another good reference isTEFL Equity Advocates website which presented lesson plans aiming at raising students’ awareness of the issues of native speakerism and other EIL issues (http://teflequityadvocates.com/activities-and-lesson-plans/).

4 . Why is it important to introduce EIL-related topics to pre- and in-service teachers in Indonesia?

Well, for me there are at least three major reasons. First, English is used more as L2 than as a mother tongue, and, consequently, the notion that English is exclusively owned by the native-speaking communities is no longer valid as the non-native speakers now also have a right to be heard in matters affecting the language (Widdowson, 1994).

Second, English is now the most widely taught as a second and foreign language in the world (Crystal, 2003). More and more people learn the language from teachers of English to be able to communicate in English. In this global era, I believe that the goal of teaching English should be as what Matsuda said, i.e.  to prepare students as competent users of English as an International Language (EIL) (Matsuda, 2018).

Third, the majority (up to 80%) of English language teachers are non-native speakers of the language (Canagarajah, 1999); and the majority of trained ESL/EFL teachers are Non-Native English Speaker Teachers (NNESTs) (Graddol, 2006). Sadly speaking, however, some studies conducted by Reves & Medgyes (1994), Samimy & Brutt-Griffler (1999), Inbar-Lourie’s (2001), and Llurda & Huguet (2003) (as cited in Braine, 2005) show that many NNESTs still consider their NEST colleagues as better language teachers despite of their academic and professional qualifications. A small study towards 11 pre-service teachers taking my course also showed similar findings. At the beginning of the course all pre-service teachers believed that NESTs would serve as the best language teachers because English is the language of native speakers and it is used as their daily communication tool (Floris, 2013). To date, I still find such belief among my student-teachers and our graduates. I find it frustrating when I realize that even our very good student-teachers and graduates still see themselves as imperfect users of English who need to be taught proper English by native speakers.

I was very fortunate that the Head of the English Department and my colleagues strongly supported the idea of having a course Teaching English as an International Language for our student-teachers. The course aims to increase pre-service teachers’ awareness and favorable attitude towards EIL and the teaching of EIL. I also try to introduce the EIL concept in some other subjects such as in Current Issues in Language Educationin which our student-teachers are asked to critically examine various teaching approaches.

5.What are some pedagogical challenges when designing and implementing EIL-related activities? How can teachers overcome these challenges?

It is very challenging to introduce the concept of EIL to people who feel that native speakers are the best models, the best variety is American or British English, or best teaching approach is the one developed and taught by the ‘white’.

Thanks to the technology, nowadays we have unlimited online resources that we can use in introducing EIL and designing EIL-related activities. The International Dialects of English Archive (http://web.ku.edu/~idea/), for example, presents more than 1,000 English recordings made by people (natives) living in 100 different countries. This is a very good website to introduce our students or teacher trainees to various Englishes in the world. Another good website is The TEFLology Podcast (http://teflology.libsyn.com/) which presents discussions on current issues in ELT. Featured speakers come from various countries and teach in many different parts of the world showing that nativeness should not be a major issue in language teaching. I also need to mention Matsuda’s 2017 book and TEFL Equity Advocates website as sources to get ideas on how to bring EIL topics to language classrooms. I believe there would be more practical sources or references available in the future.

6. Could you tell us about your current and future teaching/research plans?

I am preparing two book chapters on teacher professional development, two articles on EIL, and one edited book on inspirational stories from English classrooms. I hope to get them all published in 2019. I have just started doing my doctorate in a state university in Indonesia, and I am planning to conduct my research on the issue of teacher research. It is quite challenging to manage my time as I also have classes to teach and children to take care of. I am trying my best though.


Braine, G. (2005). A history of research on non-native speaker English teachers. In E. Llurda (Ed.), Non-native language teachers: Perceptions, challenges and contributions to the profession(pp. 13-23). New York: Springer.

Canagarajah, A. S. (1999). Interrogating the “native speaker fallacy”: Non-linguistic roots, non-pedagogical results. In G. Braine (Ed.),Non-native educators in English language teaching(pp. 77-92). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Crystal, D. (2003). English as a global language (2nd ed.).Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Graddol, D. (2006). English next. Retrieved March 1, 20-9, from  http://www.britishcouncil.de/pdf/english‐next‐2006.pdf

Floris, F.D. (2002). Immersion program at Indonesian universities: Good or evil?. English Edu, 1 (2), 367-378.

Floris, F.D. (2013). Exploring Beliefs of Pre-Service Teachers toward English as an International Language. ThaiTESOL Journal, 26 (1), 46-75.

Floris, F.D. (2014). Introducing English as an International Language (EIL) to Pre-Service Teachers in a World English Course. PASAA Journal, 47 (January – June 2014), 215 – 231.

Matsuda, A. (2017) Preparing Teachers to Teach English as an International Language. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

Matsuda, A. (2018). Is Teaching English as an International Language All about Being Politically Correct? RELC Journal, 49(1), 24–35.

Widdowson, H.G. (1994) The ownership of English. TESOL Quarterly28 (2), 377–381.

Nathanael Rudolph

Nathanael Rudolph

Thank you for participating in this interview. As editors of the NNEST of the month blog for a few years, we have had the opportunity to learn about the experiences of self-identified “Non-native” speakers and teachers of English from all over the world. For example, they have shared their pedagogical practices and ideas, perceptions on the challenges of hiring practices, and their scholarship and interest in continuing advocating for the need to expand views of what we mean by “English teaching.”

In addition, we have had the pleasure of participating in evolving conversations pertaining to the goals of the Non-native Speakers of English Interest Section (NNEST IS). Because of our own positionalities as teacher-scholars across institutional and geographical settings, disciplines, languages, and other aspects, we are particularly interested in making the conversation about the future of the NNEST IS more accessible to other teacher-scholars.

Interview by Cristina Sánchez-Martín

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Elvira Ambite


Elvira Ambite was born in Ávila, Spain, in 1991. She loved English since she was a little girl, and she’s taught it for almost ten years. After living abroad for several years, she went back to Madrid in 2015, where she works at a language school.

Could you please tell us about your educational and professional background?

I completed a degree in English Philology from the University of Salamanca. I had spent several summers teaching English to teenagers in my town. After that, I wasn’t really sure about making a career in education, so I decided to move to The Netherlands and work as an au pair (babysitter) while I made up my mind.  I ended up staying in Amsterdam for two years. During that time, I learned a great deal about teaching from my host family’s children, and it was then when I realized that education was my true calling.

I came back to Madrid to get my master’s degree in 2015. While the experience of studying that particular MA from the Complutense University was, to put it lightly, soul-crushing, I was incredibly lucky with my internship, which involved teaching English at a secondary state school. My mentor was an amazing professional and I cherished every moment I spent there.

Since then, I’ve worked as an English teacher in many contexts, including high-end companies and language teaching schools like Kids&Us. I always keep learning and trying to get better at my job.

Your story was recently featured in the Spanish edition of the Huffington Post in an article after you published several tweets about the challenges of being a non-native English teacher in Spain. What drove you to write those tweets? What was your goal? Did you expect the response you received?

To be honest, I didn’t have any goal other than to get some of the anger off my chest. I’d been looking for a better job for almost a year and this issue with the native teachers is a constant barrier. I was particularly disappointed that day. I could never have imagined the impact of my message. I remember writing the tweets, turning my phone off and falling asleep in my friend’s car -we were going to the beach for a few days. When we arrived at our destination, I saw hundreds of responses to my tweets, so I got a little overwhelmed. I’m not used at all to that kind of online attention. I am very happy that my vindication reached so many people and the fact that, at least, it started a conversation.

As a self-identified non-native English teacher, what do you find more rewarding and challenging? How do you navigate both the positive and negative responses to your work?

The most rewarding thing in the world is observing actual progress in my students. For example, when a middle-aged engineer that one year ago could barely produce a sentence is able to have a successful conversation with a client on the phone; or when children overcome their shyness and can narrate a perfectly coherent story without even realizing it.

In the context where I teach, I guess the most challenging thing is the quality of the contracts. For example, oftentimes, teachers feel the necessity to get several jobs to be able to survive, which means they have very limited time to prepare their lessons. In general, it is a context where teachers are required to function with constant exhaustion; therefore, they struggle to concentrate on doing their jobs. It is really draining.

In order to handle the responses to your work, communication skills are key, in my opinion. A lot of people want immediate results and you need to be able to earn their trust without patronizing parents and adult students. If you like your job, if you plan your lessons properly and you are willing to communicate with the group, you will navigate successfully through any potential obstacle.

From your experiences, how do you envision the future of English teaching in the context where you teach? Is there anything you would like to see changing?

I think there are a lot of misconceptions to overcome. The popular belief that the best English teacher must be native is seriously damaging our work. Not only our work conditions as non-native English teachers but also the quality of the services provided to students. And I think employers and consumers are both to blame for this situation. I do understand some of the causes of the issue. First, I understand that learning English seems an urgent need and an imperative for most job positions. I also understand the mindset of many English-speaking young people who, when they live abroad in a non-English speaking country for a year, prefer a teaching job over a job that requires more physical labor, even if they have not been trained to do it. What I do not understand, and I certainly do not support is the fact that many English-speaking companies and language schools are bypassing their duty of educating their students. There are some relieving examples. For example, Kids&Us explains parents why native teachers do not have any priority, and they do it in an effective way. But this is an exception. As long as language schools keep hiring people by looking at their passport, the problem is going to be there and results are going to be just as mediocre. Most of these native teachers do not meet the requirements to perform their job. Chatting with the students is not an English lesson, and some of the stronger learners can gain fluency from it, but it means leaving behind those who have more difficulties or need more specialized support.

What would you recommend to non-native English teachers who are starting their professional career?

Persevere. Beginnings are hard but better opportunities will arrive. Our profession is wonderful. It can be fun, challenging, rewarding, hard, intense, fulfilling, all of that in one lesson. Keep educating yourself, there is always something left to learn. Make the effort of empathising with your students. Learn how to motivate them, every group is different and discovering how to bring them in is as rewarding as teaching them learning strategies, there is always a way. Plan your lessons carefully and always have a plan B in case the first plan doesn’t work for that particular group of people. And, if you genuinely have fun, they will too.

You hold an MA degree in linguistics from Trinity College. In your opinion, how does the scholarship in applied linguistics and adjacent fields contribute to the professionalization of English teachers? Is there anything you would have liked to learn that you didn’t have the chance to in your MA degree?

       I don’t. I spent a study abroad year in Dublin and I was lucky enough to study in Trinity College Dublin (TCD). Since the degree of Philology does not exist per se in Ireland, all subjects related to linguistics belonged to the MA degree. In my view, the level of that MA was significantly below my knowledge as an undergraduate in Salamanca. However, the focus of the program was better-aimed and, as a student, I felt more stimulated. I cannot say that the program was more teaching-oriented, but it gave students a much more accurate idea of how English works as a language and, since the groups are smaller, a very exciting opportunity for debate. Besides, the fact that students are evaluated mainly through essays, where they have to show that they have actual, deep knowledge of the subject, I find far more interesting and rewarding than being assessed through tests.

Cristina Sanchez-Martin


Cristina Sanchez-Martin has recently earned her PhD in English Studies from Illinois State University and will begin her job as assistant professor in applied linguistics at Indiana University of Pennsylvania in the 2018 Fall semester. Her work revolves around investigating how humans understand and navigate composing and language practices across languages and in transnational contexts.

  1. Could you tell us about your personal and professional background? What led you to pursuing your doctoral study at Illinois State University (ISU)?

I was born in Salamanca (Spain), a region traditionally associated with standard language ideologies in Spanish. Since I was little I started to become interested in “non-standard” language practices by listening to my grandparents and people from a small rural town. After high-school, I decided to continue pursuing a career in the humanities. The university of Salamanca offered the option to complete two BA degrees simultaneously in Hispanic Philology and English Studies, which took a bit longer than a traditional program, but it was worth it. Retrospectively, I think that experience helped me to see the types of things that scholars in one area study as opposed to the other one. In other words, I started to realize the overlaps and gaps within a field of study. In my third year, I applied for a study abroad program called Erasmus in Durham University (UK). This study abroad program was funded by the European Union to facilitate mobility in Europe, not just to promote student exchange but also the exchange of knowledge and expertise. Once again, it was an extremely rewarding experience at the personal and educational levels. It was interesting to see what English Studies meant in the context of the UK, as opposed to Spain. And, the other way around: I noticed the types of things that students of Spanish Philology (which was called Hispanic Studies there) learned in the UK, which needless to say, added new and distinctive aspects to what I was learning in Salamanca. I feel like I started to make sense of learning as situated, and to look for the dualism and networked aspects of transnationalism to understand my own growth as a language user. Thanks to one of my mentors, Dr. Izaskun Elorza, I started to become involved in organizing conferences and to participate in scholarly events related to language and mobility. I took her advice and completed an MA degree in Translation and Intercultural Mediation, the closest field of inquiry to what in the U.S. is rhetoric and composition. With my mentors Dr. Ovidi Carbonell and Dr. John Hyde, I learned about the linguistic aspects relevant to “translating the other” (Carbonell, 1997). I began to investigate the relationship between language and composing/translating from a social justice standpoint. I also completed a MA degree in English teaching, which prompted pedagogical questions regarding all the other dual experiences I had had before. Connecting the dots between previous experiences is what led me to apply for the PhD at Illinois State University. In particular, the work of Dr. Lisya Seloni clicked with me. An interdisciplinary program, where I could bridge together my previous experiences in English teaching, translation, writing, and linguistics, seemed perfect to continue looking for answers (and to pose more questions!).

  1. As a professional development coordinator in the writing program leadership team at Illinois State University, you have been mentoring international graduate students. What major challenges do they face? What strategies do successful international students employ to cope with these challenges?

I am grateful to have had the opportunity to work for the writing program at Illinois State University in the capacity of professional development coordinator. I would like to take this opportunity to thank Dr. Joyce Walker, director of the program, for having provided the space for practical grounded pedagogies that enable productive conversations on language diversity. The philosophies of the writing program centered around the idea of writing research in the world from a Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) perspective, and its pedagogical application (Pedagogical Cultural Historical Activity Theory -PCHAT) certainly facilitate the work of international graduate students and instructors. The idea is that there isn’t one type of writing that is “good writing”, in the same way that there isn’t one type of language that works for all situations. In other words, instead of telling students “this is what good writing is like” and “this is what proper and good language is like”, we help students to become researchers of situated writing and language practices that are meaningful to them. For international instructors, this approach allows them to illustrate to students their own writing and language identities as they as used to navigate unexpected and new situations across languages, borders, modalities, etc. And perhaps more obviously, the experiences of international instructors who speak more languages than English contribute to challenging language ideologies like the myth of linguistic homogeneity (Matsuda, 2006) and monolingualism (Horner et al. 2011). However, we all have previous knowledge that enables learning as well as knowledge that prevents or blocks it. For example, some of the recurrent challenges that I have encountered have to do with what we think learning and teaching are like. Sometimes we have ingrained ideologies regarding the roles of students (they are supposed to receive the knowledge from the teacher) and teachers (the ones who provide objective answers to students). To create and maintain a productive learning environment, we have to identify these ideologies and engage in meaningful conversations in the classroom. From my experience, for international instructors, especially if they have learned English in Foreign Language contexts, this might be a challenge. If they have learned to use standard language in their essay writing (or other school genres frequently included in the curriculum of English language courses), they might feel unprepared to respond to students’ non-standard language and writing practices if they understand their role as teachers in traditional ways. In other words, they might not feel legitimized to help students with their writing (especially if students are users of mainstream Englishes). Finally, their identities as a minority international graduate students and speakers of other languages intersect with other identity markers of difference, so learning about how one’s identities are taken up in the classroom space is essential to become reflective teachers.

  1. What recommendations do you have for language instructors and language program coordinators to better assist international students?

To me, it is essential to attend to their (academic) socialization, which moves beyond academic settings and it takes place through participatory practice. The work of scholars like Sandra Zappa-Hollman, Patricia A. Duff, and Lisya Seloni (among others) provides great insights into socialization, which I see as an “innovative, transformative, and sometimes contested process” (Kobayashi, Zappa-Hollman, & Duff, 2017, p. 293). In addition, as Zappa-Hollman and Duff’s 2015 study demonstrated, the framework of “individual networks of practice (INoP)”, which builds on the theoretical constructs of community of practice and social network theory, was useful to investigate how INoP places the student at the center of his/her socialization process in relation to unique networks and contexts. Through this framework, the authors found that students’ academic literacy development was significantly influenced by “humans and other forms of support” (p. 25) beyond their professors and classmates, demonstrating the “complexity and unpredictability” of language socialization (p. 26). If this is part of students’ learning, classrooms pedagogies and programmatic initiatives have to account for it through realistic activities, projects, learning outcomes and assessment practices. The volume Collaborations & Innovations: Supporting Multilingual Writers Across Campus Units (2017) edited by Kim, J.Y, Hammil, M.J., Matsuda, P.K. (2017) offers great ideas for the types of cross-unit collaborative practices that can be implemented in and in between different classroom spaces and other settings/institutions on campus.  Finally, international students have a lot to offer, particularly in the context of increased internationalization and/or diversification of U.S. institutions. If we listen to their experiences, we can all become more knowledgeable of what learning is like in the 21st century.

  1. You have recently completed your dissertation “Teaching writing through transformation: Linguistically diverse writing teachers’ enactments of transactional writing and linguistic diversity”. What is your core message that you want to convey?

My dissertation was a qualitative study in which I used constructivist grounded theory and multiple ethnographically-oriented case studies to investigate what linguistic diversity looks like in first-year composition courses mostly populated by so-called “native speakers of American English”. Specifically, I investigated how linguistically-diverse (“non-native”) English instructors used their previous knowledge of languages and transnational writing to teach composition. The results of my study indicated that the classroom becomes a contested space, where language as a concept is reconstructed and redefined based on lived experiences. These case studies showed that instructors understand linguistic diversity in divergent ways, embracing their own lived experiences as subjects with intersectional identities (as well as their students’) as learning opportunities to theorize language and writing practices. The data also suggested that linguistically diverse writing instructors disrupt the myths of linguistic homogeneity and monolingualism in composition in various ways. However, challenging these myths did not happen without obstacles. Some of the issues that linguistically diverse writing instructors must deal with are the dichotomy between native and non-native speakers, a deficit mindset, and the tokenization of linguistic diversity. In general, engaging in discussions about these aspects proves to be transformative and contributes to their growth as reflective teachers and their students’ learning.

  1.  During your doctoral studies, you taught “Gender in the Humanities”, and attended a professional seminar “Strategies to address the challenges of female educators” at ISU. How did you become interested in gender issues? Can you share a couple of strategies that can be applicable to NNEST issues?

As a transnational scholar, I have had to think about how my identity influences how I navigate academic spaces and vice versa. At the beginning, I wasn’t sure about why I felt uncomfortable and unwelcomed in some situations, but as I started reading feminist scholarship, I realized what was going on and that other minorities go through similar issues. In multiple occasions, I have had to account for myself while others didn’t have to. For example, during my graduate career I worked as an English teacher at the English language institute in a public university in the U.S. and as the ESL specialist at a liberal arts university. In both cases, I was frequently identified as a “non-native” English teacher or writing specialist through unproductive statements and questions, which to me, was an indirect “inspection” of my pedagogical, linguistic and writing skills. If no productive conversations follow and there isn’t an honest desire to learn from each other’s experiences, those situations become othering practices. Feminist scholarship has helped me to position myself and to identify discriminatory ideologies and behaviors that do not contribute to the promotion of equality regardless of the identity traits used to mark people (nativeness, gender identification, sexual orientation, race, ethnicity, class, ability, language, etc.). Therefore, the strategies I recommend are 1) become familiarized with some feminist scholarship and with the work of linguists like Kubota, Belcher, Park, Seloni, and Pavlenko (among many others), 2) identify your own privileges as well as oppressions, 3) document, or at least, identify how you move across spaces (including classrooms) and what your body tells you about those spaces and who inhabits them, 4) share your experiences with your support networks and mentors, and 5) be a reflective human!

  1. Could you tell us about your current and future projects?

I am interested in integrating Pedagogical Cultural Historical Activity Theory (PCHAT), the practical application of Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) (Walker, 2017; Prior, Walker, and Riggert-Keiffer, 2019), in writing courses for multilingual students. In terms of writing teacher education, I plan to contribute to conversations around the potential of transdisciplinarity as a methodological and pedagogical lens to understand the relationship between language, writing, and mobility for the 21st century.  Finally, I hope to develop a feminist mentoring initiative for and by linguistically diverse students and to add to conversations on (academic) socialization.

Thank you!


Carbonell, O. (1997). Traducir al otro. Traducción, exotismo, poscolonialismo. Cuenca: Ediciones de la Universidad de Castilla la Mancha.  

Horner, B., Lu, M. Z., Royster, J. J., & Trimbur, J. (2011). Language difference in writing: Toward a translingual approach. College English73(3), 303-321.

Kim, J.Y, Hammil, M.J., Matsuda, P.K. (2017). Intensive English Programs and First-Year Composition: Bridging the Gap. Collaborations & Innovations: Supporting Multilingual Writers Across Campus Units, 121-135.

Kobayashi, M., Zappa-Hollman, S., & Duff, P. (2017). Academic discourse socialization. In P. Duff & S. May (Eds.), Language socialization. Encyclopedia of language and education (3rd ed.). New York: Springer.

Matsuda, P. K. (2006). The myth of linguistic homogeneity in US college composition. College English68(6), 637-651.

Prior, P., Walker, R.J, and Riggert-Keiffer, D. (2019). Languaging the Rhetorical Tradition: Pedagogical CHAT in middle school and college. Forthcoming.

Walker, R.J. (2017). CHATPerson and the ANT -The Story of Pedagogical CHAT. [Handout]. Retrieved from http://isuwriting.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/CHATPerson-and-the-ANT-The-Story-of-Pedagogical-CHAT.pdf

Zappa-Hollman, S. & Duff, P. A. (2015). Academic English socialization through individual networks of practice. TESOL Quarterly, 49(2), 333-368.

Anna Loseva



Anna Loseva earned her MA in TEFL from Moscow City Pedagogical University in 2008. In Russia, Anna taught English in various contexts to different age groups and language levels before moving to Japan in 2015. She is currently employed by Rikkyo University, where she delivers English discussion classes to students of all majors. Since 2011, Anna has been involved with International Teacher Development Institute as an Associate, Blogger, and Editor of iTDi Blog. Her professional interests include extensive reading, developing cultural awareness, social media in education, mentoring and reflective practice for professional development.

Interviewed by: Hami Suzuki

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Dr. Jorge Diego Sánchez


Interview by Cristina Sánchez-Martín

Hi Jorge, thank you for participating in this interview and sharing your experiences with us. To begin with, could you please tell us about your background?

Hi, Cristina. Thanks for getting in touch with me. I graduated in English Studies, and I have a PhD in Postcolonial Studies (Indian diaspora cinema and literature). Nevertheless, teaching English as a Foreign Language (EFL) as well as English for Specific Purposes (ESP) is a passion I have been developing since an early age.  I enjoyed an Erasmus experience (European programme for foreign study) in Dublin (Ireland) in my third year, and I was a Teaching Assistant (hence TA) for courses in Spanish at the same university I was studying at. I really enjoyed the experience and so I decided to repeat the experience as a TA and went to London to teach at a private high school.

Then I started as PhD candidate, and some of the undergraduate courses in general English language required teaching. I had been doing EFL tuition since I was 14 years old to friends and other children/students, but this experience at college enhanced the possibilities as students in college were more enthusiastic. I realised the benefits of changing approaches, motivating students, and fostering a motivating approach to oral skills. I continued teaching these courses after completing my PhD at two other universities in Madrid (Spain). These were ESP courses for students doing degrees in International Relations, Medicine, Engineering and municipality’s officers.  I must confess, it was a challenge in the beginning because I had to develop new material and, at a turning point, I became aware of the fact that that I had to change the whole scope and make the students the ones creating their own material. I became a facilitator of specific real contexts and materials (I organised meetings with ambassadors, patients and showrooms) so that students could see the feasibility of real experiences where English and a high degree of motivation was expected. Lack of motivation was in fact the burden I could find in every group (no matter which age or background).

I came back to teach at University of Salamanca two years ago, and I have been teaching English courses (both EFL and ESP) trying to implement those strategies. High number of students in class (for instance, last year groups gathered 220, 127 and 91 students) havebeen the problem I have found in this new experience. Nevertheless, throughout the implementation of collaborative projects in teaching innovation, these classes have been a delight to participate in! Some colleagues wonder how I feel splitting my academic life between postcolonial studies and EFL/ESP teaching, and I must confess that it is a great balance to handle!

You have recently been granted a project on teaching innovation, could you please tell our readers about the project?

Yes, this year I applied for a project for the EFL course I teach for first year undergraduate in the Degree of History. It is called “Promotion and Transversality of English Language in the Degree of History: Interdisciplinary Proposal around the Concepts of Resilience and Precarity” and it departs from the necessities and areas that I thought could be implemented after teaching a similar course the previous year. The course is a B1 standard (Common European Framework), and it gathers a high number of students (this year 91) with different levels in oral, writing, listening, communication and ethical and cultural attitudes.

The project departs from a similar experience that was developed last year in a ESP course for the fourth year Medicine degree students in two groups of, respectively, 227 and 48 students. A group of experts in different sections of medicine collaborated with a set of experts in linguistic to design a real context (International Conference for Young Practicioners of Medicine) so that the whole course was developed and assessed as part of this Conference. Writing of abstracts, presentation and discussion of work in progress, and writing of a scientific paper and academic presentation of this research project were the activities of assessment. The project aimed at strengthening oral skills in real context for these students. The experience introduced new trends of the field, such as Medical Geology and Rheumatology, as an attempt to implement new areas to motivate students. Oncology and Dermatology were the other two areas out which students were expected to pick a topic. Rubric for assessments were designed and produced for every activity by both groups of experts to guarantee that the medical context and competences were integrated in the linguistic requirements of the course.

This year’s project agglutinates a group of experts in History, Cultural Studies, Journalism and ESP to organise the contents of the course around the topics of Resilience and Precarity. The reason to choose these two topics was that they were very contemporary and could be used as critical terms to look at the present/past/future of History.

For that project, you gathered a significant number of non-native English teachers from different disciplines. What led you to that idea? What steps did you take to implement the idea into an actual teaching and research project?

Yes, in the project there are members from Australia, Canada, India, Spain and the UK. The non-native teaching lecturers do teach EFL and ESP courses as well as modules in literature, history, gender and cultural studies. There are also 6 members graduated in History who are teaching at state schools which offer the subjects of history in English. There are also journalists with a high knowledge of English that they have had to use in real situations, such as how to describe a historical event for a catalogue in English, how to interview a historian and the sort of situations. The problems we non-native teachers face are ideally shared with the students, or at least are taken into account to prepare the material of the lessons.

In terms of research, what are the benefits and drawbacks (if any) of working collaboratively with scholars and teachers across languages, disciplines, and institutions?

I am very lucky to have gathered a group of professionals who believe that any research of innovation in teaching project is devoted for students and society, not for the members or the main researcher. Nowadays, I have noticed that some projects are excuses for groups or individuals to cultivate themselves instead of offering and sharing something. Members of the group agreed to come on board when the idea was merely sketched and agreed to help as much as they could with ease and gratitude. I am a huge fan of team-work, so the main benefit of structuring the course according to the advices and recommendations of the members truly adds to the course.

I am particularly keen on the collaboration between non-native and native speakers from different regions because it is particularly enriching for everyone. I wish I could devote more time and attention to this interaction in upcoming years. Also, a lot of knowledge from different perspectives is shared on relevant contemporary issues and lots of interaction take place in meetings, emails and the sort of communication. From a personal perspective, I count on an interdisciplinary group which is able to provide answers about any topic as well as is eager to devote time to outlines, discussions and perspectives. I know that some members of the group have started to think about resilience and precarity since the project was awarded and they are working about the topics with their students (both at high school, undergraduate and post-doctorate level).

The experts have been given suggestions for those topics (they shared their own choices from their own fields), have assessed the adequacy of the choices and the development of students’ work, worked on the production of rubrics, etc. Besides, there have been two activities organised by the project that have aimed at disseminating the English language in real contexts making students talk English outside their classrooms (their comfort zones): a Film seminar showing films in English showing specific moments in history presented by experts of the topic. English is given visibility for the students of History, and these students meet undergraduates of Philologý as they have enrolled the seminar. It is a five-part seminar and 74 students joined. Also, the project has collaborated with the International Conference entitled “Women, Visual Arts, Literature and Human Rights” which was organised by the International Seminar of Contemporary History on Human Rights at University of University of Salamanca to commemorate the International Day of Women (March 8-9th, 2018). Some of its members, as international respected academics do participate in the project and so we organised two parallel activities. The former is a film in the previous seminar and the latter the meeting with an artist that is exhibiting at the painting show that the Conference commissioned. Students will have to create a leaflet, review or podcast script of the exhibition (as training for their final assessment) and they will interview the artist.

The drawbacks of working with such a big international team (25) is that sometimes emailing takes a bit of time, but that is a minor drawback in this year’s team because all of them are very committed and involved in the project. Also, lack of funding is a burden that we inventively try to bridge with creative alternatives, such as online meetings and Skype calls. Nevertheless, some funding to invite a writer to interact with the students or to bring a person from overseas to teach an interactive seminar could enlarge the outcomes of the project. Also, I tried to arrange a collaborative work with a national museum. A real visit was not possible because of lack of money and so a virtual tour was done… but the students missed the opportunity to interact with the people in charge of the educational programmes to which they were outlining activities in English. The same problem in the access to facilities for transportation is involved in the impossibility of students to visit the High Schools (with associated teachers within the project) to present their activities and interact in real life with classes that they might be teaching in a few years’ time.

What are the expectations for the project in terms of research?

Intellectual outputs involve Rubrics that have been designed taking into account the interdisciplinary nature of the project as well as the design of activities for EFL teaching using original material. A proposal to explain the benefits of teaching EFL through films in a conference for teaching innovation has been accepted. Results in relation to the understanding and analysis of reality and history through the concepts of resilience and precarity are expected together with a corpus-based review of the date collected in the writing tasks. I personally hope that the project gets further dissemination in the specific areas of research and work so that people can enjoy the work of students as well as the suggestions of the group!

What projects are you currently involved in related to the teaching of English?

The research project, as previously stated, aimed at organising the contents of the courses according to the topics of resilience and precarity. According to different writers (Susan O’Brien, Tabish Khair, Judith Butler, Marianne Hirsch…) these two terms allow to evaluate the functioning of cultures, politics and socio-economical contemporary issues. The course if a B1 EFL and we have made a selection of moments in history, characters, books, films, paintings, performances… that refer to historical moments. They are used to practice the contents of the specific level and for the final presentation where students need to present one of these topics orally in a formal context besides producing a writing submission in one of the following templates: a leaflet for a museum, a script for a podcast and a review for a newspaper. There are rubrics that have been produced taken into account the feedback received from all experts to ask for real contexts where English language will be demanded.

Finally, what advice would you give to other teachers and scholars interested in carrying out projects with colleagues from different parts of the world and whose disciplinary and institutional backgrounds are not exactly the same as yours?

Just enjoy the group, the course and the management of as well as the specificities of some intellectual outputs! And organise the project for the students because, ultimately, you teach for students, not for your own merits!

Thank you Jorge and congratulations on such an interesting project!

Thank you Cristina for this interview and for being such an active member of the team!

Prof. Li-Shih Huang

Dr. Li-Shih

An Interview with Prof. Li-Shih Huang, University of Victoria, British Columbia

Interviewer: Madhukar K C


  1. Thank you very much for joining us on the NNEST-of-the-month blog. Could you briefly tell us about your background and how you got interested in learning language and becoming an educator, especially a teacher of English?

Thank you for the kind invitation and the opportunity, and above all, for what you and the NNEST-IS members do in your advocacy work for NNEST in our profession. Since I am someone who tends to shy away from talking about myself, I will instead focus on the serendipitous occurrences in my life that led me to where I am today. Before specializing in second language education, I had worked in the advertising industry and subsequently for a prestigious group in the hospitality sector for seven years. During that time, I was also teaching EFL at private schools any time I got a chance. While moving through the organization’s ranks, working long hours on all the major holidays because of the nature of the business, an opportunity arose for me to take on teaching English for Specific Purposes at a hospitality university, which I took. Discovering that teaching, and not the success of climbing the corporate ladder or securing major sponsors for hosting over a hundred events a year, was what really spoke to my heart, I decided then to return to Canada to pursue a master’s degree in education, enrolling initially in the comparative education program. But then one evening while waiting for my class to begin, I decided to sit in on a class in second language learning taught by Birgit Harley, and that evening changed the trajectory of my life. The next day I switched to another program, and, as the saying goes, the rest is history.


  1. What are your main areas of interest for research, publishing, and presentation at conferences? How do you think your academic publishing and your presentations at conferences contribute to the literature of NNEST issues, World Englishes, ELF, and EIL?

My interests in research and scholarly dissemination extend quite broadly, including areas such as EAP needs and outcomes assessment, corpus-aided teaching and learning, learner strategies in language learning and language testing, and reflective learning. Gratefully I’ve had support from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC), the Educational Testing Service (ETS), and the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) for my work in these areas. In publishing and presentations, I try to devote my attention to both scholarly and professional audiences, perhaps the latter more, as I expressed in this op-ed, which I authored a few years back. This choice is also evident in the nearly five dozen articles or posts I have published for teaching purposes. I’m not certain how much I have contributed to the areas you specify, but an area I have devoted regular attention to is raising the awareness of learners and instructors about ways to support NNES learners and teachers. Over the past decade, these efforts have included 291 presentations and workshops I have delivered across 25 units, both within and beyond my institution.


  1. Could you share with us your memories of some of the opportunities and challenges you encountered as a consequence of your NNES identity while working as a language-teaching professional in Canada?

I am fortunate because I have been afforded opportunities to continue to develop my skills and expertise, and I rarely, if ever, have felt that my differences impeded me from pursuing what I do. Although it’s been pointed out that pronunciation may be the linguistic feature that faces the most judgment as it is the most noticeable, such that one’s accent can easily evoke bias in others, people’s perceptions about who we are do not define us. Rather, our accents and linguistic backgrounds are part of who we are, as I have often shared with my students since the late 1990s, when the “native-like” pronunciation model and accent “elimination” reigned supreme. I intentionally, and critically, use pedagogical tasks in my own teaching to question previously held assumptions, to honor my students’ voices, and to shift how learners view themselves as they come to see that differences are not deficiencies to be eliminated but rather can enrich our voices and facilitate our development. To me, perhaps the biggest challenge lies not in teaching the what-and-how of communication, but in expanding the ability to suspend judgment and to question our own assumptions and interpretations, since these assumptions, which are often deeply rooted in our upbringing and experiences, are critical to transforming our perspectives. Challenges surely abound in what we do every day, challenges that may relate directly or indirectly to our NNES identity and, by extension, to our qualifications to meet our students’ learning needs. Challenges, however, often come with meaningful and rewarding moments that let us know that what we do matters, that we are making a difference in the lives of language learners. My position has indeed enabled me to see the challenges of learners from the viewpoints both of someone who has been trained to tackle those challenges, and someone who has gone through those challenges herself. These perspectives have in turn uniquely benefited me in designing and implementing various research and service programs in my areas of specialization.


  1. You were awarded the Mary Finocchiaro Award for Excellence in the Development of Pedagogical Materials by TESOL International owing to your expertise and creativity in designing pedagogical materials. You were also the recipient of the 2014 Humanities Teaching Excellence Award and the 2017 TESOL Award for an Outstanding Paper on NNEST Issues. Could you highlight the main thrust of your research paper on NNEST issues to our valued readers from TESOL community and beyond?

In my research under one of my current SSHRC grants, I am working to contribute to refugee resettlement efforts by developing culturally sensitive language training, which is critical to integrating refugee learners into the Canadian workforce and society. Faced with limited funding and resources, Canada is having to address enormous challenges related to language training as it seeks to resettle an unprecedented influx of Syrian refugees. As headlines have reported, over 36 cities across Canada are encountering critical problems related to language training for refugees. My work, which draws on approaches to teaching language that are backed by the most up-to-date theories and research, aims to identify the language-learning needs of the Syrian refugees and integrate them into a language-training program that builds on their own rich linguistic and cultural backgrounds. The project incorporates several sources of data to capture their specific needs, including needs assessment surveys, interviews with learners and teachers, and learner corpora. This work will also help practitioners working with refugee learners, and will be extended to any instructor interested in developing lessons or units that are grounded in theory and empirically substantiated, and that draw on learners’ own languages to scaffold English-language learning based on task performance. The final phase of this work will involve empirically substantiating the instructional materials and approach.


  1. You are currently an Associate Professor of Applied Linguistics and the Learning and Teaching Scholar-in-Residence. What courses do you teach for graduate programs at UVic? As an NNES teacher educator, what opportunities and challenges have you experienced working at your university so far?

I teach mainly core courses that survey key areas in the broader field of applied linguistics and research methods. A great deal of my time in the graduate program is devoted to mentoring the students’ research projects required for their doctoral candidacy papers or theses/dissertations. These have involved a wide range of topics, including testing and assessment, learner strategies, refugee resettlement, EAP needs, instructional approaches and methods for French as a second language, language-teaching methods in language revitalization, Japanese pedagogical material development, second language writing, game-based learning, and vocabulary learning in Russian. For me personally, one of my biggest ongoing challenges, as for many of us in our line of work, revolves around work-life balance. I am often asked whether or not I sleep! Maintaining a high level of engagement and time commitment to do the job well and meet personal and professional expectations is time consuming. Being an NNES instructor and imposing high standards of work on myself often doubles the amount of time I need to complete my work. There are also the issues posed by the growing evidence for inherent gender and race-related biases, whether explicit or implicit, in student evaluations. So being acknowledged by awards for pedagogical material design, teaching, and research and being placed in the category of “a very small, very exceptional coterie of professors who earn top ratings from students” has been truly uplifting and heartening. As an NNES teacher educator, I see a great many opportunities working with the next generation of teachers and teacher educators. This past term, for example, among three articles published by ELT journals in 2017 that I offered as options for my students to choose one to explore (following my approach detailed in my article), the group selected the article about equity and enrichment in the TESOL practicum. The wonderful discussion that ensued inspired in all of us a great deal of hope and optimism about the progress of the profession in the hands of these future teachers, NES and NNES alike, with whom I have had the privilege to work. Raising awareness is a first step to creating ripple effects that can transform our own individual and collective practices, and thereby change the state of our professional community.


  1. What advice would you give to your NNES students at UVic and TESOL professionals who wish to succeed as EFL instructors and researchers in Canadian schools/colleges/universities? What advice would you provide to graduate students (Master’s and Ph.D.) trying to publish their research works in peer-reviewed journals?

I’m not sure I have the best advice to offer those wishing to succeed as instructors and researchers in Canada because this work has been a life-long quest of my own. In my work of training future ELT professionals, my deep commitment to connecting theory, research, and practice is known to any student who has taken my courses. These courses are carefully built around facilitating various tasks and activities that require students to experiment throughout the term, so they can learn experientially how to apply the theories and discussions they have read in research articles written for practitioners. Specifically, they make the application through their own experimentations in a recursive and cyclical process involving feedback, reflection, and revisions, as they build their professional practical knowledge and repertoires. Never stop experimenting with your approaches and methods, and never stop challenging your own assumptions, are not only words of advice for my students, but are also what I practice personally. For practicing teachers, I would go a step further to encourage them to share their discoveries with other instructors, whether informally or through presentations and publications, as I have also sought to do over the years. For instance, I have written many posts for various trade publications that are the fruit of such experimentations.

It’s fair to say that in order to connect theory, research, and practice in this way, I believe that practitioners must stay abreast of the literature and research on pedagogy so they can make informed decisions. I am a firm believer that no one can tell you unequivocally what will work best for you in your own teaching contexts, or that there is a one-size-fits-all solution to your teaching challenges. And certainly, no study in the sea of literature can tell your particular story or directly answer your own teaching-related questions. It is only through experimenting and testing our own hypotheses—whether informally through trial and error, or formally if your institution supports such professional development through action research or SoTL (scholarship of teaching and learning)—that we can continue to reflect on our experiences and improve our practices. Seek out peers or colleagues who share similar interests and would be interested in collaborating on research directly relevant to your own teaching. Then mobilize or translate that knowledge so that those who share similar challenges can benefit from your insights. For early career teachers, my advice would be to seek out opportunities to hone your skills and develop your expertise. Speaking from my personal experience, the countless hours I have put into developing a lesson, course, series, or program, whether remunerated or not, cannot be replaced by any amount of training, classroom learning, or textbook reading.

For graduate students trying to publish their work, there is no shortage of advice offered by those who have dedicated their lives and work to helping other emerging (and established) scholars publish (e.g., @write4research, @ThomsonPat, and @explorstyle). This is a complex area that deserves more than a brief response, but if I had to choose one piece of advice from which I would have benefited during my early career (and as I look at the manuscripts I never returned to!), I would encourage these students to look at “revise and resubmit” in a positive light. (This is one reason I encourage graduate students in all my courses to revise and resubmit their work as many times as they like.) Take heed of the astute advice offered by Robert MacIntosh and the wise words of Robert Graves: “There is no such thing as good writing. Only good rewriting.” Writers have different approaches to writing, and there are no right or wrong answers; find out what works optimally for you—when, where, how, with whom, and why. Learn to deal with (even harsh) rejections because they come with the territory, and write your own story of perseverance.


  1. We often come across discriminatory job advertisements on social media, websites of various ELT/TEFL/TESL industry (i.e., universities, colleges, private language and training schools) that tend to perpetuate the ideology of native speakerism. Could you shed light on Canadian EFL/ELT academic contexts with regard to hiring policies and practices? How do you think ELT/TESOL educators should address this prevalent issue of bias and discrimination to bring social justice and professional equity?

This is a really challenging, sensitive, and emotionally charged question for many, and one that is difficult for me to respond thoughtfully and succinctly. I cannot speak to the Canadian ELT context with regard to hiring policies and practices because I do not have the expertise, nor have I immersed myself in the literature enough to form an objective viewpoint. However, I do think it fair to say that it is not uncommon to come across or experience discriminatory practices. My most recent encounters have been related to, in one case, serving on a search committee where I experienced overt biases that for me shattered the façade of the hiring process. Another case relates to a hiring post listing “no Asian face” and “native speaker only” as among the qualifications shared by an admirable, outspoken twitter user. The eye-opening experience was the number of responses arguing that there was nothing wrong with making “native speakers only” one of the eligibility criteria, which underscores the challenges ahead of us. Having said that, I also recognize that in recent years, because the ideology of native speakerism has risen to the surface, our collective consciousness of its ramifications has also increased considerably, thanks to scholars and practitioners whose work has prompted reflection and a call for change. Various professional bodies have also taken a strong stance on equity issues related to our profession. My own awareness of these issues, though not necessarily related to hiring, has also greatly increased because of recent life occurrences heightened by the current geopolitical climate. I’ve learned that statements about diversity, inclusion, and equity are not enough, nor are they sufficient in combating implicit or structural bias and discrimination. In the post-secondary context, it is, however, encouraging to see the work by Frances Henry and other race-focused and social justice scholars who have joined forces to push us to think and examine more deeply the ways that race and racism play out on Canadian campuses over issues related to equity in pay and hiring, the lack of visibility of racialized faculty, and racial discrimination. These have been treated using empirical evidence in their work titled “The Equity Myth: Racialization and Indigeneity at Canadian Universities” (2017).

Certainly, we still have a long road ahead to affect changes at the micro- and macro-levels, but I also believe in my heart of hearts that, first and foremost, one does not have to engage in discriminatory practices in order to be an impediment to equity in our profession. Silence will do it. Silence is never neutral. As Nelson Flores has encouraged us: “Disrupt the notion of right/white ELT qualifications by sharing experiences of racist nativism in order to prompt reflection” (2017). Above all, I hope that we will all consider lending support to our less privileged colleagues. It’s one thing to proclaim to care about equity and diversity, but another thing entirely to put such a proclamation into action. To borrow the words of Deb DeHass, “It is everyone’s responsibility, every day and at every level, to create the culture that can make [inclusion] happen.” It starts with me, with you, and with the voices of many other people.


Work cited in order of appearance:

Huang, L.-S. (2012, October 2). There’s a disconnect between “scholarly value” and how we reach audiences who need research. LSE Impact Blog. The London School of Economics and Political Science. Retrieved from http://blogs.lse.ac.uk/impactofsocialsciences/2012/10/02/huang-disconnect-scholarly-value-audiences/

Flaherty C. (2016, January 11). Bias against female instructors. Inside Higher Education. Retrieved from https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2016/01/11/new-analysis-offers-more-evidence-against-student-evaluations-teaching

Huang, L.-S. (2015, September 25). Getting the horses to drink: Three ways to promote student ownership of reading assignment. Faculty Focus. Retrieved from https://www.facultyfocus.com/articles/effective-teaching-strategies/three-ways-to-promote-student-ownership-of-reading-assignments/

MacIntosh, R. (2018, February 1). Career advice: How to handle ‘revise and resubmit’ requests. Times Higher Education. Retrieved from https://www.timeshighereducation.com/news/career-advice-how-handle-revise-and-resubmit-requests

Henry, F., Dua, E., James, C. E., Kobayashi, A., Li, P., Ramos, H., & Smith, M. S. (2017). The equity myth: Racialization and indigeneity at Canadian universities. Vancouver, BC: UBC Press.

Flores, N. (2017, September 20). Not having the right/white qualifications for English language teaching. Retrieved from https://educationallinguist.wordpress.com/2017/09/20/not-having-the-rightwhite-qualifications-for-english-language-teaching/

Wittenberg-Cox, A. (2017, August 3). Deloitte’s radical attempt to reframe diversity. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved from https://hbr.org/2017/08/deloittes-radical-attempt-to-reframe-diversity