Flora Debora Floris


Brief-bio Flora Debora Floris is a lecturer at Petra Christian University, Surabaya, Indonesia where she teaches general/business English and language teaching methodology courses. She has published and given talks on the integration of technology in English language teaching, teachers’ professional development and the teaching of English as an International language. Her recent published papers include Unlocking the potential of SAMR with Willy A. Renandya (English Teaching Professional, 2019), A conversation about supporting teacher research with Willy A. Renandya (ETAS Journal, 2018), and Mining Online L2 Learning Resources: From SLA Principles to Innovative Task Design with Willy A. Renandya and Bao Dat (Multilingual Matters, 2018).

Interview by Ju Seong Lee

1.Thank you for joining us on NNEST-of-the-month blog. Could you briefly tell us about your personal and professional background?

First of all, I would like to say thank you for giving me this valuable opportunity. It is a great honor to share my experiences with the readers of the NNEST of the Month Blog, one of my favorite columns to read.

In terms of academic background, I got my bachelor’s degree in English education from Widya Mandala Catholic University in Surabaya, Indonesia and my master’s degree (MA in ELT) from Assumption University in Bangkok, Thailand. The master program I enrolled in shaped my awareness of critical issues in ELT especially on the issues of teaching EIL. The director of the program Prof. Alan Maley and my lecturers came from different countries and spoke different first languages. Despite their background differences, all of them had graduated from reputable universities and had a lot of professional experience in ELT in various parts of the world. Their deep knowledge and hands-on experiences in teaching, doing research and publication have obviously influenced their classroom practices and inspired their MA students.

Professionally speaking, I have been working at the English Department of Petra Christian University in Surabaya, Indonesia since 2000. I teach a wide range of courses mostly on general English, business English, and language teaching methodology courses.

I also serve as a reviewer and editorial board member for some local and international journals including TEFLIN Journal, RELC Journal, and TESL-EJ. I also assist Dr. Willy A. Renandya, a senior language teacher educator of the National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore to maintain Teacher Voices (http://www.facebook.com/groups/teachervoices/) which is an online Facebook forum for language teachers, textbook writers, curriculum specialists, and researchers in English language teaching or applied linguistics. The forum was established in 2011 and it now has more than 10,000 members from 40 countries.

2. One of your teaching/research interests includes pedagogical implications of English as an international language (EIL). How did you become interested in this topic?

I became interested in the issues of teaching EIL during my MA study when I took a World Englishes course under the guidance of Dr. Mario Saraceni (currently Reader in English Language and Linguistics in the School of Languages and Area Studiesat the University of Portsmouth, UK). The course really opened my eyes and mind to the world that lies outside of American and British English. The issues of Englishes, Braj Kachru’s circles, native and non-native teachers, English as a medium of instruction, and many others were things that I never thought about at that time. The World Englishes course was a revelation; and I grew my interest on the teaching of English as an international language from this course. On the second year of my MA study, I started my publication journey. My first published article was on the issue of using English as a medium of instruction at Indonesian universities (see Floris, 2002).

3. Can you share a couple of activities of how ELT practitioners can integrate EIL-informed pedagogy into the classroom?

I would recommend readers to refer to the following sources as they present some suggested activities for teaching EIL.

  • Floris, F.D. (2014). Introducing English as an International Language (EIL) to Pre-Service Teachers in a World English Course. PASAA Journal, 47 (January – June 2014), 215 – 231.
  • Matsuda, A. (2017) Preparing Teachers to Teach English as an International Language. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

Another good reference isTEFL Equity Advocates website which presented lesson plans aiming at raising students’ awareness of the issues of native speakerism and other EIL issues (http://teflequityadvocates.com/activities-and-lesson-plans/).

4 . Why is it important to introduce EIL-related topics to pre- and in-service teachers in Indonesia?

Well, for me there are at least three major reasons. First, English is used more as L2 than as a mother tongue, and, consequently, the notion that English is exclusively owned by the native-speaking communities is no longer valid as the non-native speakers now also have a right to be heard in matters affecting the language (Widdowson, 1994).

Second, English is now the most widely taught as a second and foreign language in the world (Crystal, 2003). More and more people learn the language from teachers of English to be able to communicate in English. In this global era, I believe that the goal of teaching English should be as what Matsuda said, i.e.  to prepare students as competent users of English as an International Language (EIL) (Matsuda, 2018).

Third, the majority (up to 80%) of English language teachers are non-native speakers of the language (Canagarajah, 1999); and the majority of trained ESL/EFL teachers are Non-Native English Speaker Teachers (NNESTs) (Graddol, 2006). Sadly speaking, however, some studies conducted by Reves & Medgyes (1994), Samimy & Brutt-Griffler (1999), Inbar-Lourie’s (2001), and Llurda & Huguet (2003) (as cited in Braine, 2005) show that many NNESTs still consider their NEST colleagues as better language teachers despite of their academic and professional qualifications. A small study towards 11 pre-service teachers taking my course also showed similar findings. At the beginning of the course all pre-service teachers believed that NESTs would serve as the best language teachers because English is the language of native speakers and it is used as their daily communication tool (Floris, 2013). To date, I still find such belief among my student-teachers and our graduates. I find it frustrating when I realize that even our very good student-teachers and graduates still see themselves as imperfect users of English who need to be taught proper English by native speakers.

I was very fortunate that the Head of the English Department and my colleagues strongly supported the idea of having a course Teaching English as an International Language for our student-teachers. The course aims to increase pre-service teachers’ awareness and favorable attitude towards EIL and the teaching of EIL. I also try to introduce the EIL concept in some other subjects such as in Current Issues in Language Educationin which our student-teachers are asked to critically examine various teaching approaches.

5.What are some pedagogical challenges when designing and implementing EIL-related activities? How can teachers overcome these challenges?

It is very challenging to introduce the concept of EIL to people who feel that native speakers are the best models, the best variety is American or British English, or best teaching approach is the one developed and taught by the ‘white’.

Thanks to the technology, nowadays we have unlimited online resources that we can use in introducing EIL and designing EIL-related activities. The International Dialects of English Archive (http://web.ku.edu/~idea/), for example, presents more than 1,000 English recordings made by people (natives) living in 100 different countries. This is a very good website to introduce our students or teacher trainees to various Englishes in the world. Another good website is The TEFLology Podcast (http://teflology.libsyn.com/) which presents discussions on current issues in ELT. Featured speakers come from various countries and teach in many different parts of the world showing that nativeness should not be a major issue in language teaching. I also need to mention Matsuda’s 2017 book and TEFL Equity Advocates website as sources to get ideas on how to bring EIL topics to language classrooms. I believe there would be more practical sources or references available in the future.

6. Could you tell us about your current and future teaching/research plans?

I am preparing two book chapters on teacher professional development, two articles on EIL, and one edited book on inspirational stories from English classrooms. I hope to get them all published in 2019. I have just started doing my doctorate in a state university in Indonesia, and I am planning to conduct my research on the issue of teacher research. It is quite challenging to manage my time as I also have classes to teach and children to take care of. I am trying my best though.


Braine, G. (2005). A history of research on non-native speaker English teachers. In E. Llurda (Ed.), Non-native language teachers: Perceptions, challenges and contributions to the profession(pp. 13-23). New York: Springer.

Canagarajah, A. S. (1999). Interrogating the “native speaker fallacy”: Non-linguistic roots, non-pedagogical results. In G. Braine (Ed.),Non-native educators in English language teaching(pp. 77-92). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Crystal, D. (2003). English as a global language (2nd ed.).Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Graddol, D. (2006). English next. Retrieved March 1, 20-9, from  http://www.britishcouncil.de/pdf/english‐next‐2006.pdf

Floris, F.D. (2002). Immersion program at Indonesian universities: Good or evil?. English Edu, 1 (2), 367-378.

Floris, F.D. (2013). Exploring Beliefs of Pre-Service Teachers toward English as an International Language. ThaiTESOL Journal, 26 (1), 46-75.

Floris, F.D. (2014). Introducing English as an International Language (EIL) to Pre-Service Teachers in a World English Course. PASAA Journal, 47 (January – June 2014), 215 – 231.

Matsuda, A. (2017) Preparing Teachers to Teach English as an International Language. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

Matsuda, A. (2018). Is Teaching English as an International Language All about Being Politically Correct? RELC Journal, 49(1), 24–35.

Widdowson, H.G. (1994) The ownership of English. TESOL Quarterly28 (2), 377–381.

Nathanael Rudolph

Nathanael Rudolph

Thank you for participating in this interview. As editors of the NNEST of the month blog for a few years, we have had the opportunity to learn about the experiences of self-identified “Non-native” speakers and teachers of English from all over the world. For example, they have shared their pedagogical practices and ideas, perceptions on the challenges of hiring practices, and their scholarship and interest in continuing advocating for the need to expand views of what we mean by “English teaching.”

In addition, we have had the pleasure of participating in evolving conversations pertaining to the goals of the Non-native Speakers of English Interest Section (NNEST IS). Because of our own positionalities as teacher-scholars across institutional and geographical settings, disciplines, languages, and other aspects, we are particularly interested in making the conversation about the future of the NNEST IS more accessible to other teacher-scholars.

Interview by Cristina Sánchez-Martín

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Elvira Ambite


Elvira Ambite was born in Ávila, Spain, in 1991. She loved English since she was a little girl, and she’s taught it for almost ten years. After living abroad for several years, she went back to Madrid in 2015, where she works at a language school.

Could you please tell us about your educational and professional background?

I completed a degree in English Philology from the University of Salamanca. I had spent several summers teaching English to teenagers in my town. After that, I wasn’t really sure about making a career in education, so I decided to move to The Netherlands and work as an au pair (babysitter) while I made up my mind.  I ended up staying in Amsterdam for two years. During that time, I learned a great deal about teaching from my host family’s children, and it was then when I realized that education was my true calling.

I came back to Madrid to get my master’s degree in 2015. While the experience of studying that particular MA from the Complutense University was, to put it lightly, soul-crushing, I was incredibly lucky with my internship, which involved teaching English at a secondary state school. My mentor was an amazing professional and I cherished every moment I spent there.

Since then, I’ve worked as an English teacher in many contexts, including high-end companies and language teaching schools like Kids&Us. I always keep learning and trying to get better at my job.

Your story was recently featured in the Spanish edition of the Huffington Post in an article after you published several tweets about the challenges of being a non-native English teacher in Spain. What drove you to write those tweets? What was your goal? Did you expect the response you received?

To be honest, I didn’t have any goal other than to get some of the anger off my chest. I’d been looking for a better job for almost a year and this issue with the native teachers is a constant barrier. I was particularly disappointed that day. I could never have imagined the impact of my message. I remember writing the tweets, turning my phone off and falling asleep in my friend’s car -we were going to the beach for a few days. When we arrived at our destination, I saw hundreds of responses to my tweets, so I got a little overwhelmed. I’m not used at all to that kind of online attention. I am very happy that my vindication reached so many people and the fact that, at least, it started a conversation.

As a self-identified non-native English teacher, what do you find more rewarding and challenging? How do you navigate both the positive and negative responses to your work?

The most rewarding thing in the world is observing actual progress in my students. For example, when a middle-aged engineer that one year ago could barely produce a sentence is able to have a successful conversation with a client on the phone; or when children overcome their shyness and can narrate a perfectly coherent story without even realizing it.

In the context where I teach, I guess the most challenging thing is the quality of the contracts. For example, oftentimes, teachers feel the necessity to get several jobs to be able to survive, which means they have very limited time to prepare their lessons. In general, it is a context where teachers are required to function with constant exhaustion; therefore, they struggle to concentrate on doing their jobs. It is really draining.

In order to handle the responses to your work, communication skills are key, in my opinion. A lot of people want immediate results and you need to be able to earn their trust without patronizing parents and adult students. If you like your job, if you plan your lessons properly and you are willing to communicate with the group, you will navigate successfully through any potential obstacle.

From your experiences, how do you envision the future of English teaching in the context where you teach? Is there anything you would like to see changing?

I think there are a lot of misconceptions to overcome. The popular belief that the best English teacher must be native is seriously damaging our work. Not only our work conditions as non-native English teachers but also the quality of the services provided to students. And I think employers and consumers are both to blame for this situation. I do understand some of the causes of the issue. First, I understand that learning English seems an urgent need and an imperative for most job positions. I also understand the mindset of many English-speaking young people who, when they live abroad in a non-English speaking country for a year, prefer a teaching job over a job that requires more physical labor, even if they have not been trained to do it. What I do not understand, and I certainly do not support is the fact that many English-speaking companies and language schools are bypassing their duty of educating their students. There are some relieving examples. For example, Kids&Us explains parents why native teachers do not have any priority, and they do it in an effective way. But this is an exception. As long as language schools keep hiring people by looking at their passport, the problem is going to be there and results are going to be just as mediocre. Most of these native teachers do not meet the requirements to perform their job. Chatting with the students is not an English lesson, and some of the stronger learners can gain fluency from it, but it means leaving behind those who have more difficulties or need more specialized support.

What would you recommend to non-native English teachers who are starting their professional career?

Persevere. Beginnings are hard but better opportunities will arrive. Our profession is wonderful. It can be fun, challenging, rewarding, hard, intense, fulfilling, all of that in one lesson. Keep educating yourself, there is always something left to learn. Make the effort of empathising with your students. Learn how to motivate them, every group is different and discovering how to bring them in is as rewarding as teaching them learning strategies, there is always a way. Plan your lessons carefully and always have a plan B in case the first plan doesn’t work for that particular group of people. And, if you genuinely have fun, they will too.

You hold an MA degree in linguistics from Trinity College. In your opinion, how does the scholarship in applied linguistics and adjacent fields contribute to the professionalization of English teachers? Is there anything you would have liked to learn that you didn’t have the chance to in your MA degree?

       I don’t. I spent a study abroad year in Dublin and I was lucky enough to study in Trinity College Dublin (TCD). Since the degree of Philology does not exist per se in Ireland, all subjects related to linguistics belonged to the MA degree. In my view, the level of that MA was significantly below my knowledge as an undergraduate in Salamanca. However, the focus of the program was better-aimed and, as a student, I felt more stimulated. I cannot say that the program was more teaching-oriented, but it gave students a much more accurate idea of how English works as a language and, since the groups are smaller, a very exciting opportunity for debate. Besides, the fact that students are evaluated mainly through essays, where they have to show that they have actual, deep knowledge of the subject, I find far more interesting and rewarding than being assessed through tests.

Cristina Sanchez-Martin


Cristina Sanchez-Martin has recently earned her PhD in English Studies from Illinois State University and will begin her job as assistant professor in applied linguistics at Indiana University of Pennsylvania in the 2018 Fall semester. Her work revolves around investigating how humans understand and navigate composing and language practices across languages and in transnational contexts.

  1. Could you tell us about your personal and professional background? What led you to pursuing your doctoral study at Illinois State University (ISU)?

I was born in Salamanca (Spain), a region traditionally associated with standard language ideologies in Spanish. Since I was little I started to become interested in “non-standard” language practices by listening to my grandparents and people from a small rural town. After high-school, I decided to continue pursuing a career in the humanities. The university of Salamanca offered the option to complete two BA degrees simultaneously in Hispanic Philology and English Studies, which took a bit longer than a traditional program, but it was worth it. Retrospectively, I think that experience helped me to see the types of things that scholars in one area study as opposed to the other one. In other words, I started to realize the overlaps and gaps within a field of study. In my third year, I applied for a study abroad program called Erasmus in Durham University (UK). This study abroad program was funded by the European Union to facilitate mobility in Europe, not just to promote student exchange but also the exchange of knowledge and expertise. Once again, it was an extremely rewarding experience at the personal and educational levels. It was interesting to see what English Studies meant in the context of the UK, as opposed to Spain. And, the other way around: I noticed the types of things that students of Spanish Philology (which was called Hispanic Studies there) learned in the UK, which needless to say, added new and distinctive aspects to what I was learning in Salamanca. I feel like I started to make sense of learning as situated, and to look for the dualism and networked aspects of transnationalism to understand my own growth as a language user. Thanks to one of my mentors, Dr. Izaskun Elorza, I started to become involved in organizing conferences and to participate in scholarly events related to language and mobility. I took her advice and completed an MA degree in Translation and Intercultural Mediation, the closest field of inquiry to what in the U.S. is rhetoric and composition. With my mentors Dr. Ovidi Carbonell and Dr. John Hyde, I learned about the linguistic aspects relevant to “translating the other” (Carbonell, 1997). I began to investigate the relationship between language and composing/translating from a social justice standpoint. I also completed a MA degree in English teaching, which prompted pedagogical questions regarding all the other dual experiences I had had before. Connecting the dots between previous experiences is what led me to apply for the PhD at Illinois State University. In particular, the work of Dr. Lisya Seloni clicked with me. An interdisciplinary program, where I could bridge together my previous experiences in English teaching, translation, writing, and linguistics, seemed perfect to continue looking for answers (and to pose more questions!).

  1. As a professional development coordinator in the writing program leadership team at Illinois State University, you have been mentoring international graduate students. What major challenges do they face? What strategies do successful international students employ to cope with these challenges?

I am grateful to have had the opportunity to work for the writing program at Illinois State University in the capacity of professional development coordinator. I would like to take this opportunity to thank Dr. Joyce Walker, director of the program, for having provided the space for practical grounded pedagogies that enable productive conversations on language diversity. The philosophies of the writing program centered around the idea of writing research in the world from a Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) perspective, and its pedagogical application (Pedagogical Cultural Historical Activity Theory -PCHAT) certainly facilitate the work of international graduate students and instructors. The idea is that there isn’t one type of writing that is “good writing”, in the same way that there isn’t one type of language that works for all situations. In other words, instead of telling students “this is what good writing is like” and “this is what proper and good language is like”, we help students to become researchers of situated writing and language practices that are meaningful to them. For international instructors, this approach allows them to illustrate to students their own writing and language identities as they as used to navigate unexpected and new situations across languages, borders, modalities, etc. And perhaps more obviously, the experiences of international instructors who speak more languages than English contribute to challenging language ideologies like the myth of linguistic homogeneity (Matsuda, 2006) and monolingualism (Horner et al. 2011). However, we all have previous knowledge that enables learning as well as knowledge that prevents or blocks it. For example, some of the recurrent challenges that I have encountered have to do with what we think learning and teaching are like. Sometimes we have ingrained ideologies regarding the roles of students (they are supposed to receive the knowledge from the teacher) and teachers (the ones who provide objective answers to students). To create and maintain a productive learning environment, we have to identify these ideologies and engage in meaningful conversations in the classroom. From my experience, for international instructors, especially if they have learned English in Foreign Language contexts, this might be a challenge. If they have learned to use standard language in their essay writing (or other school genres frequently included in the curriculum of English language courses), they might feel unprepared to respond to students’ non-standard language and writing practices if they understand their role as teachers in traditional ways. In other words, they might not feel legitimized to help students with their writing (especially if students are users of mainstream Englishes). Finally, their identities as a minority international graduate students and speakers of other languages intersect with other identity markers of difference, so learning about how one’s identities are taken up in the classroom space is essential to become reflective teachers.

  1. What recommendations do you have for language instructors and language program coordinators to better assist international students?

To me, it is essential to attend to their (academic) socialization, which moves beyond academic settings and it takes place through participatory practice. The work of scholars like Sandra Zappa-Hollman, Patricia A. Duff, and Lisya Seloni (among others) provides great insights into socialization, which I see as an “innovative, transformative, and sometimes contested process” (Kobayashi, Zappa-Hollman, & Duff, 2017, p. 293). In addition, as Zappa-Hollman and Duff’s 2015 study demonstrated, the framework of “individual networks of practice (INoP)”, which builds on the theoretical constructs of community of practice and social network theory, was useful to investigate how INoP places the student at the center of his/her socialization process in relation to unique networks and contexts. Through this framework, the authors found that students’ academic literacy development was significantly influenced by “humans and other forms of support” (p. 25) beyond their professors and classmates, demonstrating the “complexity and unpredictability” of language socialization (p. 26). If this is part of students’ learning, classrooms pedagogies and programmatic initiatives have to account for it through realistic activities, projects, learning outcomes and assessment practices. The volume Collaborations & Innovations: Supporting Multilingual Writers Across Campus Units (2017) edited by Kim, J.Y, Hammil, M.J., Matsuda, P.K. (2017) offers great ideas for the types of cross-unit collaborative practices that can be implemented in and in between different classroom spaces and other settings/institutions on campus.  Finally, international students have a lot to offer, particularly in the context of increased internationalization and/or diversification of U.S. institutions. If we listen to their experiences, we can all become more knowledgeable of what learning is like in the 21st century.

  1. You have recently completed your dissertation “Teaching writing through transformation: Linguistically diverse writing teachers’ enactments of transactional writing and linguistic diversity”. What is your core message that you want to convey?

My dissertation was a qualitative study in which I used constructivist grounded theory and multiple ethnographically-oriented case studies to investigate what linguistic diversity looks like in first-year composition courses mostly populated by so-called “native speakers of American English”. Specifically, I investigated how linguistically-diverse (“non-native”) English instructors used their previous knowledge of languages and transnational writing to teach composition. The results of my study indicated that the classroom becomes a contested space, where language as a concept is reconstructed and redefined based on lived experiences. These case studies showed that instructors understand linguistic diversity in divergent ways, embracing their own lived experiences as subjects with intersectional identities (as well as their students’) as learning opportunities to theorize language and writing practices. The data also suggested that linguistically diverse writing instructors disrupt the myths of linguistic homogeneity and monolingualism in composition in various ways. However, challenging these myths did not happen without obstacles. Some of the issues that linguistically diverse writing instructors must deal with are the dichotomy between native and non-native speakers, a deficit mindset, and the tokenization of linguistic diversity. In general, engaging in discussions about these aspects proves to be transformative and contributes to their growth as reflective teachers and their students’ learning.

  1.  During your doctoral studies, you taught “Gender in the Humanities”, and attended a professional seminar “Strategies to address the challenges of female educators” at ISU. How did you become interested in gender issues? Can you share a couple of strategies that can be applicable to NNEST issues?

As a transnational scholar, I have had to think about how my identity influences how I navigate academic spaces and vice versa. At the beginning, I wasn’t sure about why I felt uncomfortable and unwelcomed in some situations, but as I started reading feminist scholarship, I realized what was going on and that other minorities go through similar issues. In multiple occasions, I have had to account for myself while others didn’t have to. For example, during my graduate career I worked as an English teacher at the English language institute in a public university in the U.S. and as the ESL specialist at a liberal arts university. In both cases, I was frequently identified as a “non-native” English teacher or writing specialist through unproductive statements and questions, which to me, was an indirect “inspection” of my pedagogical, linguistic and writing skills. If no productive conversations follow and there isn’t an honest desire to learn from each other’s experiences, those situations become othering practices. Feminist scholarship has helped me to position myself and to identify discriminatory ideologies and behaviors that do not contribute to the promotion of equality regardless of the identity traits used to mark people (nativeness, gender identification, sexual orientation, race, ethnicity, class, ability, language, etc.). Therefore, the strategies I recommend are 1) become familiarized with some feminist scholarship and with the work of linguists like Kubota, Belcher, Park, Seloni, and Pavlenko (among many others), 2) identify your own privileges as well as oppressions, 3) document, or at least, identify how you move across spaces (including classrooms) and what your body tells you about those spaces and who inhabits them, 4) share your experiences with your support networks and mentors, and 5) be a reflective human!

  1. Could you tell us about your current and future projects?

I am interested in integrating Pedagogical Cultural Historical Activity Theory (PCHAT), the practical application of Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) (Walker, 2017; Prior, Walker, and Riggert-Keiffer, 2019), in writing courses for multilingual students. In terms of writing teacher education, I plan to contribute to conversations around the potential of transdisciplinarity as a methodological and pedagogical lens to understand the relationship between language, writing, and mobility for the 21st century.  Finally, I hope to develop a feminist mentoring initiative for and by linguistically diverse students and to add to conversations on (academic) socialization.

Thank you!


Carbonell, O. (1997). Traducir al otro. Traducción, exotismo, poscolonialismo. Cuenca: Ediciones de la Universidad de Castilla la Mancha.  

Horner, B., Lu, M. Z., Royster, J. J., & Trimbur, J. (2011). Language difference in writing: Toward a translingual approach. College English73(3), 303-321.

Kim, J.Y, Hammil, M.J., Matsuda, P.K. (2017). Intensive English Programs and First-Year Composition: Bridging the Gap. Collaborations & Innovations: Supporting Multilingual Writers Across Campus Units, 121-135.

Kobayashi, M., Zappa-Hollman, S., & Duff, P. (2017). Academic discourse socialization. In P. Duff & S. May (Eds.), Language socialization. Encyclopedia of language and education (3rd ed.). New York: Springer.

Matsuda, P. K. (2006). The myth of linguistic homogeneity in US college composition. College English68(6), 637-651.

Prior, P., Walker, R.J, and Riggert-Keiffer, D. (2019). Languaging the Rhetorical Tradition: Pedagogical CHAT in middle school and college. Forthcoming.

Walker, R.J. (2017). CHATPerson and the ANT -The Story of Pedagogical CHAT. [Handout]. Retrieved from http://isuwriting.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/CHATPerson-and-the-ANT-The-Story-of-Pedagogical-CHAT.pdf

Zappa-Hollman, S. & Duff, P. A. (2015). Academic English socialization through individual networks of practice. TESOL Quarterly, 49(2), 333-368.